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Collateral Damage of Facebook Applications: a Comprehensive Study

Mon, 01/14/2019 - 08:00
Third-party applications on Facebook can collect personal data of the users who install them, but also of their friends. This raises serious privacy issues as these friends are not notified by the applications nor by Facebook, and they have not given consent. This paper presents a detailed multi-faceted study of the collateral information collection of the applications on Facebook. To investigate the views of the users, we designed a questionnaire and collected the responses of 114 participants. The results show that participants are concerned about the collateral information collection and in particular about the lack of notification and of mechanisms to control the data collection. Based on real data, we compute the likelihood of collateral information collection affecting users: we show that the probability is significant and greater than 80% for popular applications such as TripAdvisor. We also demonstrate that a substantial amount of profile data can be collected by applications, which enables application providers to profile users. To investigate whether collateral information collection is an issue to users’ privacy we analysed the legal framework in light of the new General Data Protection Regulation. We provide a detailed analysis of the entities involved and investigate which entity is accountable for the collateral information collection. To provide countermeasures, we propose a privacy dashboard extension that implements privacy scoring computations to enhance transparency towards collateral information collection. Furthermore, we discuss alternative solutions highlighting other countermeasures such as notification and access control mechanisms, cryptographic solutions and application auditing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that provides a detailed multi-faceted study of this problem and that analyses the threat of user profiling by application providers.

Circumventing Cryptographic Deniability with Remote Attestation

Fri, 01/11/2019 - 18:50
Deniable messaging protocols allow two parties to have 'off-the-record' conversations without leaving any record that can convince external verifiers about what either of them said during the conversation. Recent events like the Podesta email dump underscore the importance of deniable messaging to politicians, whistleblowers, dissidents and many others. Consequently, messaging protocols like Signal and OTR are designed with cryptographic mechanisms to ensure deniable communication, irrespective of whether the communications partner is trusted. Many commodity devices today support hardware-assisted remote attestation which can be used to convince a remote verifier of some property locally observed on the device. We show how an adversary can use remote attestation to undetectably generate a non-repudiable transcript from any deniable protocol (including messaging protocols) providing sender authentication. We prove that our attack allows an adversary to convince skeptical verifiers. We describe a concrete implementation of the attack against someone using the Signal messaging protocol. We then show how to design protocols resistant to attestation-based attacks, and in particular how attestation itself can be used to restore deniability by thwarting realistic classes of adversary.

Biased Nonce Sense: Lattice Attacks against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies

Wed, 01/09/2019 - 18:47
In this paper, we compute hundreds of Bitcoin private keys and dozens of Ethereum, Ripple, SSH, and HTTPS private keys by carrying out cryptanalytic attacks against digital signatures contained in public blockchains and Internet-wide scans. The ECDSA signature algorithm requires the generation of a per-message secret nonce. This nonce must be generated perfectly uniformly, or else an attacker can exploit the nonce biases to compute the long-term signing key. We use a lattice-based algorithm for solving the hidden number problem to efficiently compute private ECDSA keys that were used with biased signature nonces due to multiple apparent implementation vulnerabilities.

The BIG Cipher: Design, Security Analysis, and Hardware-Software Optimization Techniques

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:52
Secure block cipher design is a complex discipline which combines mathematics, engineering, and computer science. In order to develop cryptographers who are grounded in all three disciplines, it is necessary to undertake synergistic research as early as possible in technical curricula, particularly at the undergraduate university level. In this work, students are presented with a new block cipher, which is designed to offer moderate security while providing engineering and analysis challenges suitable for the senior undergraduate level. The BIG (Block) (Instructional, Generic) cipher is analyzed for vulnerability to linear cryptanalysis. Further, the cipher is implemented using the Nios II microprocessor and two configurations of memory-mapped hardware accelerators, in the Cyclone V FPGA on the Terasic DE1 System-on-chip (SoC). Three distinct implementations are realized: 1) Purely software (optimized for latency), 2) Purely hardware (optimized for area), and 3) A hardware-software codesign (optimized for throughput-to-area ratio). All three implementations are evaluated in terms of latency (encryption and decryption), throughput (Mbps), area (ALMs), and throughput-to-area (TP/A) ratio (Mbps/ALM); all metrics account for a fully functional Nios II, 8 kilobytes of on-chip RAM, Avalon interconnect, benchmark timer, and any hardware accelerators. In terms of security, we demonstrate recovery of a relationship among 12 key bits using as few as 16,000 plaintext/ciphertext pairs in a 6-round reduced round attack and reveal a diffusion rate of only 43.3 percent after 12 rounds. The implementation results show that the hardware-software codesign achieves a 67x speed-up and 37x increase in TP/A ratio over the software implementation, and 5x speed-up and 5x increase in TP/A ratio compared to the hardware implementation.

CryptoNote+

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:51
CryptoNote protocol proved to be very popular among cryptocurrency startups. We propose several features to extend the basic protocol. Among them are Hybrid Mining (a different mining scheme preventing a straightforward 51% attack), Slow Emission (an emission curve better suited for the real-world adoption), Return Addresses (transaction-speci c addresses anonymously linking transactions to their originators), Tiny Addresses (short numerical addresses easy to remember and relay). For breivity, we call these features CryptoNote+.

Decentralizing Inner-Product Functional Encryption

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:51
Multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) is a more flexible variant of functional encryption whose functional decryption involves multiple ciphertexts from different parties. Each party holds a different secret key $\mathsf{sk}_i$ and can independently and adaptively be corrupted by the adversary. We present two compilers for MCFE schemes for the inner-product functionality, both of which support encryption labels. Our first compiler transforms any scheme with a special key-derivation property into a decentralized scheme, as defined by Chotard et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018), thus allowing for a simple distributed way of generating functional decryption keys without a trusted party. Our second compiler allows to lift a unnatural restriction present in existing (decentralized) MCFE schemes,which requires the adversary to ask for a ciphertext from each party. We apply our compilers to the works of Abdalla et al. (CRYPTO 2018) and Chotard et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018) to obtain schemes with hitherto unachieved properties. From Abdalla et al., we obtain instantiations of DMCFE schemes in the standard model (from DDH, Paillier, or LWE) but without labels. From Chotard et al., we obtain a DMCFE scheme with labels still in the random oracle model, but without pairings.

Improving the MILP-based Security Evaluation Algorithms against Differential Cryptanalysis Using Divide-and-Conquer Approach

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:50
In recent years, Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) has been widely used in cryptanalysis of symmetric-key primitives. For differential and linear cryptanalysis, MILP can be used to solve the two problems: calculation of the minimum number of differential/linear active S-boxes, and search for the best differential/linear characteristics. There are already numerous papers published in this area which either find differential characteristics with good probabilities or ones with small numbers of active S-boxes. However, the efficiency is not satisfactory enough for many symmetric-key primitives. In this paper, we will greatly improve the efficiency of the search algorithms for both the two problems based on MILP. Solving the problems of the calculation of the minimum number of differential/linear active S-boxes and the search for the best differential/linear characteristics can be equivalent to solving an MILP model whose feasible region is the set of all possible differential/linear characteristics. However, searching the whole feasible region is inefficient and high-probability differential/linear characteristics are likely to appear on the smaller feasible region with a low number of active S-boxes at some round. Inspired by the idea of divide-and-conquer approach, we divide the whole feasible region into smaller ones and separately search them. We apply our method to 5 lightweight block ciphers: PRESENT, GIFT-64, RECTANGLE, LBLOCK and TWINE. For each cipher, we obtain better results than the best-known ones. For the calculation of the minimum number of differential active S-boxes, we can reach 31-round PRESENT, 28-round GIFT-64 and 17-round RECTANGLE respectively. For the search for the best differential characteristics, we can reach 23, 14, 15, 21 and 17 rounds for the five ciphers respectively. Based on the duality between the differential cryptanalysis and the linear cryptanalysis, we leave the case for linear cryptanalysis in our future work.

Generic Constructions of Robustly Reusable Fuzzy Extractor

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:50
Robustly reusable Fuzzy Extractor (rrFE) considers reusability and robustness simultaneously. We present two approaches to the generic construction of rrFE. Both of approaches make use of a secure sketch and universal hash functions. The first approach also employs a special pseudo-random function (PRF), namely unique-input key-shift (ui-ks) secure PRF, and the second uses a key-shift secure auxiliary-input authenticated encryption (AIAE). The ui-ks security of PRF (resp. key-shift security of AIAE), together with the homomorphic properties of secure sketch and universal hash function, guarantees the reusability and robustness of rrFE. Meanwhile, we show two instantiations of the two approaches respectively. The first instantiation results in the first rrFE from the LWE assumption, while the second instantiation results in the first rrFE from the DDH assumption over non-pairing groups.

CHURP: Dynamic-Committee Proactive Secret Sharing

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:49
We introduce CHURP (CHUrn-Robust Proactive secret sharing). CHURP enables secure secret-sharing in dynamic settings, where the committee of nodes storing a secret changes over time. Designed for blockchains, CHURP has lower communication complexity than previous schemes: $O(n)$ on-chain and $O(n^2)$ off-chain in the optimistic case of no node failures. CHURP includes several technical innovations: An efficient new proactivization scheme of independent interest, a technique (using asymmetric bivariate polynomials) for efficiently changing secret-sharing thresholds, and a hedge against setup failures in an efficient polynomial commitment scheme. We also introduce a general new technique for inexpensive off-chain communication across the peer-to-peer networks of permissionless blockchains. We formally prove the security of CHURP, report on an implementation, and present performance measurements.

Fast Message Franking: From Invisible Salamanders to Encryptment

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:48
Message franking enables cryptographically verifiable reporting of abusive content in end-to-end encrypted messaging. Grubbs, Lu, and Ristenpart recently formalized the needed underlying primitive, what they call compactly committing authenticated encryption (AE), and analyzed the security of a number of approaches. But all known secure schemes are still slow compared to the fastest standard AE schemes. For this reason Facebook Messenger uses AES-GCM for franking of attachments such as images or videos. We show how to break Facebook’s attachment franking scheme: a malicious user can send an objectionable image to a recipient but that recipient cannot report it as abuse. The core problem stems from use of fast but non-committing AE, and so we build the fastest compactly committing AE schemes to date. To do so we introduce a new primitive, called encryptment, which captures the essential properties needed. We prove that, unfortunately, schemes with performance profile similar to AES-GCM won’t work. Instead, we show how to efficiently transform Merkle-Damgärd-style hash functions into secure encryptments, and how to efficiently build compactly committing AE from encryptment. Ultimately our main construction allows franking using just a single computation of SHA-256 or SHA-3. Encryptment proves useful for a variety of other applications, such as remotely keyed AE and concealments, and our results imply the first single-pass schemes in these settings as well.

More Efficient Algorithms for the NTRU Key Generation using the Field Norm

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:48
NTRU lattices are a class of polynomial rings which allow for compact and efficient representations of the lattice basis, thereby offering very good performance characteristics for the asymmetric algorithms that use them. Signature algorithms based on NTRU lattices have fast signature generation and verification, and relatively small signatures, public keys and private keys. A few lattice-based cryptographic schemes entail, generally during the key generation, solving the NTRU equation: $$ f G - g F = q \mod x^n + 1 $$ Here $f$ and $g$ are fixed, the goal is to compute solutions $F$ and $G$ to the equation, and all the polynomials are in $\mathbb{Z}[x]/(x^n + 1)$. The existing methods for solving this equation are quite cumbersome: their time and space complexities are at least cubic and quadratic in the dimension $n$, and for typical parameters they therefore require several megabytes of RAM and take more than a second on a typical laptop, precluding onboard key generation in embedded systems such as smart cards. In this work, we present two new algorithms for solving the NTRU equation. Both algorithms make a repeated use of the field norm in tower of fields; it allows them to be faster and more compact than existing algorithms by factors $\tilde O(n)$. For lattice-based schemes considered in practice, this reduces both the computation time and RAM usage by factors at least 100, making key pair generation within range of smart card abilities.

BlAnC: Blockchain-based Anonymous and Decentralized Credit Networks

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:47
Distributed credit networks, such as Ripple and Stellar, are becoming popular as an alternative means for financial transactions. However, the current designs do not preserve user privacy or are not truly decentralized. In this paper, we explore the creation of a distributed credit network that preserves user and transaction privacy and unlinkability. We propose BlAnC, a novel, fully decentralized blockchain-based credit network where credit transfer between a sender-receiver pair happens on demand. In BlAnC, multiple concurrent transactions can occur seamlessly, and malicious network actors that do not follow the protocols and/or disrupt operations can be identified efficiently. We perform security analysis of our proposed protocols in the universal composability framework to demonstrate its strength, and discuss how our network handles operational dynamics. We also present preliminary experiments and scalability analyses.

Full Collision Attack: Pushing the Limits of Exhaustible Key Spaces

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:47
Recovering keys efficiently from far beyond exhaustible candidate spaces is a meaningful but very challenging topic in Side-Channel Attacks (SCA). Recent methods often utilize collision optimizations to reduce the key candidate space so that exhaustive search methods can be feasibly applied for key recovery. However, the current collision optimization methods can only utilize information of a small number of collisions, which limits the number of wrong key candidates that can be removed. In addition, their application is restricted to situations where only small thresholds can be applied. As such, the existing methods are not feasible for recovering the full key if sub-keys and collision values are located in much deeper spaces as we will discuss in this paper. To overcome these problems, we propose Full Collision Attack (FCA). Compared to the existing methods, FCA makes use of all possible collisions between any two sub-keys and removes a larger number of wrong key candidates, thus enabling key recovery in much deeper spaces. Moreover, we find that the collision values that fall beyond the threshold usually occurs only for a few sub-keys. Based on this finding, we propose the Rotational Error Tolerant FCA (RET-FCA) to significantly reduce the candidate space of collisions. Our results show that RET-FCA performs favourably when the collision values fall in the intractable space of FCA.

A Proof of the Beierle-Kranz-Leander's Conjecture related to Lightweight Multiplication in $F_{2^n}$

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:46
Lightweight cryptography is an important tool for building strong security solutions for pervasive devices with limited resources. Due to the stringent cost constraints inherent in extremely large applications, the efficient implementation of cryptographic hardware and software algorithms is of utmost importance to realize the vision of generalized computing. In CRYPTO 2016, Beierle, Kranz and Leander have considered lightweight multiplication in ${F}_{2^n}$. Specifically, they have considered the fundamental question of optimizing finite field multiplications with one fixed element and investigated which field representation, that is which choice of basis, allows for an optimal implementation. They have left open a conjecture related to two XOR-count. Using the theory of linear algebra, we prove in the present paper that their conjecture is correct. Consequently, this proved conjecture can be used as a reference for further developing and implementing cryptography algorithms in lightweight devices.

Learning to Reconstruct: Statistical Learning Theory and Encrypted Database Attacks

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:45
We show that the problem of reconstructing encrypted databases from access pattern leakage is closely related to statistical learning theory. This new viewpoint enables us to develop broader attacks that are supported by streamlined performance analyses. As an introduction to this viewpoint, we first present a general reduction from reconstruction with known queries to PAC learning. Then, we directly address the problem of $\epsilon$-approximate database reconstruction ($\epsilon$-ADR) from range query leakage, giving attacks whose query cost scales only with the relative error $\epsilon$, and is independent of the size of the database, or the number $N$ of possible values of data items. This already goes significantly beyond the state of the art for such attacks, as represented by Kellaris et al. (ACM CCS 2016) and Lacharit\'{e} et al. (IEEE S&P 2018). We also study the new problem of $\epsilon$-approximate order reconstruction ($\epsilon$-AOR), where the adversary is tasked with reconstructing the order of records, except for records whose values are approximately equal. We show that as few as ${\mathcal{O}}(\epsilon^{-1} \log \epsilon^{-1})$ uniformly random range queries suffice. Our analysis relies on an application of learning theory to PQ-trees, special data structures tuned to compactly record certain ordering constraints. We then show that when an auxiliary distribution is available, $\epsilon$-AOR can be enhanced to achieve $\epsilon$-ADR; using real data, we show that devastatingly small numbers of queries are needed to attain very accurate database reconstruction. Finally, we generalize from ranges to consider what learning theory tells us about the impact of access pattern leakage for other classes of queries, focusing on prefix and suffix queries. We illustrate this with both concrete attacks for prefix queries and with a general lower bound for all query classes.

Survey for Performance & Security Problems of Passive Side-channel Attacks Countermeasures in ECC

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:45
The main objective of the Internet of Things is to interconnect everything around us to obtain information which was unavailable to us before, thus enabling us to make better decisions. This interconnection of things involves security issues for any Internet of Things key technology. Here we focus on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for embedded devices, which offers a high degree of security, compared to other encryption mechanisms. However, ECC also has security issues, such as Side-Channel Attacks (SCA), which are a growing threat in the implementation of cryptographic devices. This paper analyze the state-of-the-art of several proposals of algorithmic countermeasures to prevent passive SCA on ECC defined over prime fields. This work evaluates the trade-offs between security and the performance of side-channel attack countermeasures for scalar multiplication algorithms without pre-computation, i.e. for variable base point. Although a number of results are required to study the state-of-the-art of side-channel attack in elliptic curve cryptosystems, the interest of this work is to present explicit solutions that may be used for the future implementation of security mechanisms suitable for embedded devices applied to Internet of Things. In addition security problems for the countermeasures are also analyzed.

On the Asymptotics of Solving the LWE Problem Using Coded-BKW with Sieving

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:43
The Learning with Errors problem (LWE) has become a central topic in recent cryptographic research. In this paper, we present a new solving algorithm combining important ideas from previous work on improving the Blum-Kalai-Wasserman (BKW) algorithm and ideas from sieving in lattices. The new algorithm is analyzed and demonstrates an improved asymptotic performance. For the Regev parameters $q=n^2$ and noise level $\sigma = n^{1.5}/(\sqrt{2\pi}\log_{2}^{2}n)$, the asymptotic complexity is $2^{0.893n}$ in the standard setting, improving on the previously best known complexity of roughly $2^{0.930n}$. The newly proposed algorithm also provides asymptotic improvements when a quantum computer is assumed or when the number of samples is limited.

One Fault is All it Needs: Breaking Higher-Order Masking with Persistent Fault Analysis

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:42
Persistent fault analysis (PFA) was proposed at CHES 2018 as a novel fault analysis technique. It was shown to completely defeat standard redundancy based countermeasure against fault analysis. In this work, we investigate the security of masking schemes against PFA. We show that with only one fault injection, masking countermeasures can be broken at any masking order. The study is performed on publicly available implementations of masking.

Tight Security Bounds for Generic Stream Cipher Constructions

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:41
The design of modern stream ciphers is strongly influenced by the fact that Time-Memory-Data tradeoff attacks (TMD-TO attacks) reduce their effective key length to $\mathit{SL}/2$, where $\mathit{SL}$ denotes the inner state length. The classical solution, employed, e.g., by eSTREAM portfolio members Trivium and Grain v1, is to design the cipher in accordance with the Large-State-Small-Key construction, which implies that $\mathit{SL}$ is at least twice as large as the session key length $\mathit{KL}$. In the last years, a new line of research looking for alternative stream cipher constructions guaranteeing a higher TMD-TO resistance with smaller inner state lengths has emerged. So far, this has led to three generic constructions: the LIZARD construction, having a provable TMD-TO resistance of $2\cdot \mathit{SL}/3$; the Continuous-Key-Use construction, underlying the stream cipher proposals Sprout, Plantlet, and Fruit; and the Continuous-IV-Use construction, very recently proposed by Hamann, Krause, and Meier. Meanwhile, it could be shown that the Continuous-Key-Use construction is vulnerable against certain nontrivial distinguishing attacks. In this paper, we present a formal framework for proving security lower bounds on the resistance of generic stream cipher constructions against TMD-TO attacks and analyze two of the constructions mentioned above. First, we derive a tight security lower bound of approximately $\min\{\mathit{KL},\mathit{SL}/2\}$ on the resistance of the Large-State-Small-Key construction. This shows that the feature $\mathit{KL}\le \mathit{SL}/2$ does not open the door for new nontrivial TMD-TO attacks against Trivium and Grain v1 which are more dangerous than the known ones. Second, we prove a maximal security bound on the TMD-TO resistance of the Continuous-IV-Use construction, which shows that designing concrete instantiations of ultra-lightweight Continuous-IV-Use stream ciphers is a hopeful direction of future research.

Minimizing Trust in Hardware Wallets with Two Factor Signatures

Tue, 01/08/2019 - 20:41
We introduce the notion of two-factor signatures (2FS), a generalization of a two-out-of-two threshold signature scheme in which one of the parties is a hardware token which can store a high-entropy secret, and the other party is a human who knows a low-entropy password. The security (unforgeability) property of 2FS requires that an external adversary corrupting either party (the token or the computer the human is using) cannot forge a signature. This primitive is useful in contexts like hardware cryptocurrency wallets in which a signature conveys the authorization of a transaction. By the above security property, a hardware wallet implementing a two-factor signature scheme is secure against attacks mounted by a malicious hardware vendor; in contrast, all currently used wallet systems break under such an attack (and as such are not secure under our definition). We construct efficient provably-secure 2FS schemes which produce either Schnorr signature (assuming the DLOG assumption), or EC-DSA signatures (assuming security of EC-DSA and the CDH assumption) in the Random Oracle Model, and evaluate the performance of implementations of them. Our EC-DSA based 2FS scheme can directly replace currently used hardware wallets for Bitcoin and other major cryptocurrencies to enable security against malicious hardware vendors.

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