Ring signatures are a common construction used to provide signer ambiguity among a non-interactive set of public keys specified at the time of signing. Unlike early approaches where signature size is linear in the size of the signer anonymity set, current optimal solutions either require centralized trusted setups or produce signatures logarithmic in size. However, few also provide linkability, a property used to determine whether the signer of a message has signed any previous message, possibly with restrictions on the anonymity set choice. Here we introduce Triptych, a family of linkable ring signatures without trusted setup that is based on generalizations of zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge of commitment openings to zero. We demonstrate applications of Triptych in signer-ambiguous transaction protocols by extending the construction to openings of parallel commitments in independent anonymity sets. Signatures are logarithmic in the anonymity set size and, while verification complexity is linear, collections of proofs can be efficiently verified in batches. We show that for anonymity set sizes practical for use in distributed protocols, Triptych offers competitive performance with a straightforward construction.
Diffie-Hellman groups are a widely used component in cryptographic protocols in which a shared secret is needed. These protocols are typically proven to be secure under the assumption they are implemented with prime order Diffie Hellman groups. However, in practice, many implementations either choose to use non-prime order groups for reasons of efficiency, or can be manipulated into operating in non-prime order groups. This leaves a gap between the proofs of protocol security, which assume prime order groups, and the real world implementations. This is not merely a theoretical possibility: many attacks exploiting small subgroups or invalid curve points have been found in the real world. While many advances have been made in automated protocol analysis, modern tools such as Tamarin and ProVerif represent DH groups using an abstraction of prime order groups. This means they, like many cryptographic proofs, may miss practical attacks on real world protocols. In this work we develop a novel extension of the symbolic model of Diffie-Hellman groups. By more accurately modelling internal group structure, our approach captures many more differences between prime order groups and their actual implementations. The additional behaviours that our models capture are surprisingly diverse, and include not only attacks using small subgroups and invalid curve points, but also a range of proposed mitigation techniques, such as excluding low order elements, single coordinate ladders, and checking the elliptic curve equation. Our models thereby capture a large family of attacks that were previously outside the symbolic model. We implement our improved models in the Tamarin prover. We find a new attack on the Secure Scuttlebutt Gossip protocol, independently discover a recent attack on Tendermint’s secure handshake, and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed mitigations for recent Bluetooth attacks.
Blockchain, which realizes state machine replication (SMR), is a fundamental building block of decentralized systems, such as cryptocurrencies and smart contracts. These systems require a consensus protocol in their global-scale, public, and trustless networks. In such an environment, consensus protocols require high resiliency, which is the ability to tolerate a fraction of faulty replicas, and thus synchronous protocols have been gaining significant research attention recently. Abraham et al. proposed a simple and practical synchronous SMR protocol called Sync Hotstuff (to be presented in IEEE S\&P 2020). Sync Hotstuff achieves $2\Delta$ latency, which is near optimal in a synchronous protocol, and its throughput without lock-step execution is comparable to that of partially synchronous protocols. Sync Hotstuff was presented under a standard synchronous model as well as under a weaker, but more realistic, model called mobile sluggish model. Sync Hotstuff also adopts an optimistic responsive mode, in which the latency is independent of $\Delta$. However, Sync Hotstuff has a critical security vulnerability with which an adversary can conduct double spending or denial-of-service attack. In this paper, we present an attack we call force-locking attack on Sync Hotstuff. This attack violates the safety, i.e., consistency of agreements, of the protocol under the standard synchronous model and the liveness, i.e., progress of agreements, of all versions of the protocol, including the mobile sluggish model and responsive mode. The force-locking attack is not only a specific attack on Sync Hotstuff but also on some general blockchain protocols. After describing the attack, we will present some refinements to prevent this attack. Our refinements remove the security vulnerability on Sync Hotstuff without any performance compromises. We will also provide formal proofs of the security for each model.
A memory-hard function (MHF) $f_n$ with parameter $n$ can be computed in sequential time and space $n$. Simultaneously, a high amortized parallel area-time complexity (aAT) is incurred per evaluation. In practice, MHFs are used to limit the rate at which an adversary (using a custom computational device) can evaluate a security sensitive function that still occasionally needs to be evaluated by honest users (using an off-the-shelf general purpose device). The most prevalent examples of such sensitive functions are Key Derivation Functions (KDFs) and password hashing algorithms where rate limits help mitigate off-line dictionary attacks. As the honest users' inputs to these functions are often (low-entropy) passwords special attention is given to a class of side-channel resistant MHFs called iMHFs. Essentially all iMHFs can be viewed as some mode of operation (making $n$ calls to some round function) given by a directed acyclic graph (DAG) with very low indegree. Recently, a combinatorial property of a DAG has been identified (called ``depth-robustness'') which results in good provable security for an iMHF based on that DAG. Depth-robust DAGs have also proven useful in other cryptographic applications. Unfortunately, up till now, all known very depth-robust DAGs are impractically complicated and little is known about their exact (i.e. non-asymptotic) depth-robustness both in theory and in practice. In this work we build and analyze (both formally and empirically) several exceedingly simple and efficient to navigate practical DAGs for use in iMHFs and other applications. For each DAG we: - Prove that their depth-robustness is asymptotically maximal. - Prove bounds of at least $3$ orders of magnitude better on their exact depth-robustness compared to known bounds for other practical iMHF. - Implement and empirically evaluate their depth-robustness and aAT against a variety of state-of-the art (and several new) depth-reduction and low aAT attacks. We find that, against all attacks, the new DAGs perform significantly better in practice than Argon2i, the most widely deployed iMHF in practice. Along the way we also improve the best known empirical attacks on the aAT of Argon2i by implementing and testing several heuristic versions of a (hitherto purely theoretical) depth-reduction attack. Finally, we demonstrate practicality of our constructions by modifying the Argon2i code base to use one of the new high aAT DAGs. Experimental benchmarks on a standard off-the-shelf CPU show that the new modifications do not adversely affect the impressive throughput of Argon2i (despite seemingly enjoying significantly higher aAT).
In recent years key rank has become an important aspect of side-channel analysis, enabling an evaluation lab to analyse the security of a device after a side-channel attack. In particular, it enables the lab to do so when the enumeration effort would be beyond their computing power. Due to its importance there has been a host of work investigating key rank over the last few years. In this work we build upon the existing literature to make progress on understanding various properties of key rank. We begin by showing when two different "scoring methods" will provide the same rank. This has been implicitly used by various algorithms in the past but here it is shown for a large class of functions. We conclude by giving the computational complexity of key rank. This implies that it is unlikely for, considerably, better algorithms to exist.
Contemporary research in symbolic formal verification has led to confirming security guarantees (as well as finding attacks) in secure channel protocols such as TLS and Signal. However, formal verification in general has not managed to significantly exit the academic bubble. Verifpal is new software for verifying the security of cryptographic protocols that aims is to work better for real-world practitioners, students and engineers without sacrificing comprehensive formal verification features. In order to achieve this, Verifpal introduces a new, intuitive language for modeling protocols that is easier to write and understand than the languages employed by existing tools. Its formal verification paradigm is also designed explicitly to provide protocol modeling that avoids user error. By modeling principals explicitly and with discrete states, Verifpal models are able to be written in a way that reflects how protocols are described in the real world. At the same time, Verifpal is able to model protocols under an active attacker with unbounded sessions and fresh values, and supports queries for advanced security properties such as forward secrecy or key compromise impersonation. Verifpal has already been used to verify security properties for Signal, Scuttlebutt, TLS 1.3 and other protocols. It is a community-focused project, and available under a GPLv3 license.
We present a cryptographic construction for anonymous tokens with private metadata bit, a primitive that enables an issuer to provide a user with anonymous trust tokens that can embed a single private metadata bit, which is accessible only to the party who holds the secret authority key and is private with respect to anyone else. Our construction provides unforgeability, unlinkability and privacy for the metadata bit properties.
The potential development of large-scale quantum computers is raising concerns among IT and security research professionals due to their ability to solve (elliptic curve) discrete logarithm and integer factorization problems in polynomial time. All currently used public key algorithms would be deemed insecure in a post-quantum (PQ) setting. In response, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has initiated a process to standardize quantum-resistant crypto algorithms, focusing primarily on their security guarantees. Since PQ algorithms present significant differences over classical ones, their overall evaluation should not be performed out-of-context. This work presents a detailed performance evaluation of the NIST signature algorithm candidates and investigates the imposed latency on TLS 1.3 connection establishment under realistic network conditions. In addition, we investigate their impact on TLS session throughput and analyze the trade-off between lengthy PQ signatures and computationally heavy PQ cryptographic operations. Our results demonstrate that the adoption of at least two PQ signature algorithms would be viable with little additional overhead over current signature algorithms. Also, we argue that many NIST PQ candidates can effectively be used for less time-sensitive applications, and provide an in-depth discussion on the integration of PQ authentication in encrypted tunneling protocols, along with the related challenges, improvements, and alternatives. Finally, we propose and evaluate the combination of different PQ signature algorithms across the same certificate chain in TLS. Results show a reduction of the TLS handshake time and a significant increase of a server's TLS tunnel connection rate over using a single PQ signature scheme.
We provide a standard-model implementation (of a relaxation) of the algebraic group model (AGM, [Fuchsbauer, Kiltz, Loss, CRYPTO 2018]). Specifically, we show that every algorithm that uses our group is algebraic, and hence ``must know'' a representation of its output group elements in terms of its input group elements. Here, ``must know'' means that a suitable extractor can extract such a representation efficiently. We stress that our implementation relies only on falsifiable assumptions in the standard model, and in particular does not use any knowledge assumptions. As a consequence, our group allows to transport a number of results obtained in the AGM into the standard model, under falsifiable assumptions. For instance, we show that in our group, several Diffie-Hellman-like assumptions (including computational Diffie-Hellman) are equivalent to the discrete logarithm assumption. Furthermore, we show that our group allows to prove the Schnorr signature scheme tightly secure in the random oracle model. Our construction relies on indistinguishability obfuscation, and hence should not be considered as a practical group itself. However, our results show that the AGM is a realistic computational model (since it can be instantiated in the standard model), and that results obtained in the AGM are also possible with standard-model groups.
A blockchain is redactable if a private key holder (e.g. a central authority) can change any single block without violating integrity of the whole blockchain, but no other party can do that. In this paper, we offer a simple method of constructing redactable blockchains inspired by the ideas underlying the well-known RSA encryption scheme. Notably, our method can be used in conjunction with any reasonable hash function that is used to build a blockchain. Public immutability of a blockchain in our construction is based on the computational hardness of the RSA problem and not on properties of the underlying hash function. Corruption resistance is based on the computational hardness of the discrete logarithm problem.
We put forward the notion of subvector commitments (SVC): An SVC allows one to open a committed vector at a set of positions, where the opening size is independent of length of the committed vector and the number of positions to be opened. We propose two constructions under variants of the root assumption and the CDH assumption, respectively. We further generalize SVC to a notion called linear map commitments (LMC), which allows one to open a committed vector to its images under linear maps with a single short message, and propose a construction over pairing groups. Equipped with these newly developed tools, we revisit the ``CS proofs'' paradigm [Micali, FOCS 1994] which turns any arguments with public-coin verifiers into non-interactive arguments using the Fiat-Shamir transform in the random oracle model. We propose a compiler that turns any (linear, resp.) PCP into a non-interactive argument, using exclusively SVCs (LMCs, resp.). For an approximate $80$ bits of soundness, we highlight the following new implications: - There exists a succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) with public-coin setup with proofs of size 5360 bits, under the adaptive root assumption over class groups of imaginary quadratic orders against adversaries with runtime $2^{128}$. At the time of writing, this is the shortest SNARK with public-coin setup. - There exists a non-interactive argument with private-coin setup, where proofs consist of 2 group elements and 3 field elements, in the generic bilinear group model.
Given the current research status in lattice-based cryptography, it is commonly suggested that lattice-based signature could be subtler and harder to achieve. Among them, Dilithium is one of the most promising signature candidates for the post-quantum era, for its simplicity, efficiency, small public key size, and resistance against side channel attacks. The design of Dilithium is based on a list of pioneering works (e.g.,[VL09,VL12,BG14]), and has very remarkable performance by very careful and comprehensive optimizations in implementation and parameter selection. Whether better trade-offs on the already remarkable performance of Dilithium can be made is left in \cite{CRYSTALS} as an interesting open question. In this work, we provide new insights in interpreting the design of Dilithium, in terms of key consensus previously proposed in the literature for key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) and key exchange (KEX). Based on the deterministic version of the optimal key consensus with noise (OKCN) mechanism, originally developed in [JZ16] for KEM/KEX, we present \emph{signature from key consensus with noise} (SKCN), which could be viewed as generalization and optimization of Dilithium. The construction of SKCN is generic, modular and flexible, which in particular allows a much broader range of parameters for searching better tradeoffs among security, computational efficiency, and bandwidth. For example, on the recommended parameters, compared with Dilithium our SKCN scheme is more efficient both in computation and in bandwidth, while preserving the same level of post-quantum security. In addition, using the same routine of OKCN for both KEM/KEX and digital signature eases (hardware) implementation and deployment in practice, and is useful to simplify the system complexity of lattice-based cryptography in general.
We consider the problem of removing subexponential reductions to indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) in the context of obfuscating probabilistic programs. Specifically, we show how to apply complexity absorption (Zhandry, Crypto 2016) to the recent notion of probabilistic indistinguishability obfuscation (piO, Canetti et al., TCC 2015). As a result, we obtain a variant of piO which allows to obfuscate a large class of probabilistic programs, from polynomially secure indistinguishability obfuscation and extremely lossy functions. Particularly, our piO variant is able to obfuscate circuits with specific input domains regardless of the performed computation. We then revisit several (direct or indirect) applications of piO, and obtain -- a fully homomorphic encryption scheme (without circular security assumptions), -- a multi-key fully homomorphic encryption scheme with threshold decryption, -- an encryption scheme secure under arbitrary key-dependent messages, -- a spooky encryption scheme for all circuits, -- a function secret sharing scheme with additive reconstruction for all circuits, all from polynomially secure iO, extremely lossy functions, and, depending on the scheme, also other (but polynomial and comparatively mild) assumptions. All of these assumptions are implied by polynomially secure iO and the (non-polynomial, but very well-investigated) exponential DDH assumption. Previously, all the above applications required to assume the subexponential security of iO (and more standard assumptions).
In this note we provide a theoretical argument towards an unsolved question related to Mantin's Digraph Repetition Bias (2005) that is observed in the key-stream of RC4. The open question, that depends on the observation that arrival of four consecutive same bytes in RC4 key-stream is slightly negatively biased, was posed by Bricout et al [Des. Codes Cryptogr. (2018) 86:743-770] in 2016.
We present Daence, a deterministic authenticated cipher based on a pseudorandom function family and a universal hash family, similar to SIV. We recommend instances with Salsa20 or ChaCha, and Poly1305, for high performance, high security, and easy deployment.
Talek is a private group messaging system that sends messages through potentially untrustworthy servers, while hiding both data content and the communication patterns among its users. Talek explores a new point in the design space of private messaging; it guarantees access sequence indistinguishability, which is among the strongest guarantees in the space, while assuming an anytrust threat model, which is only slightly weaker than the strongest threat model currently found in related work. Our results suggest that this is a pragmatic point in the design space, since it supports strong privacy and good performance: we demonstrate a 3-server Talek cluster that achieves throughput of 9,433 messages/second for 32,000 active users with 1.7-second end-to-end latency. To achieve its security goals without coordination between clients, Talek relies on information-theoretic private information retrieval. To achieve good performance and minimize server-side storage, Talek intro- duces new techniques and optimizations that may be of independent interest, e.g., a novel use of blocked cuckoo hashing and support for private notifications. The latter provide a private, efficient mechanism for users to learn, without polling, which logs have new messages.
Modern cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum achieve decentralization by replacing a trusted center with a distributed and append-only ledger (known as blockchain). However, removing this trust center comes at significant cost of privacy due to the public nature of blockchain. Many existing cryptocurrencies fail to provide transaction anonymity and confidentiality, meaning that addresses of sender, receiver and transfer amount are publicly accessible. As the privacy concerns grow, a number of academic work have sought to enhance privacy by leveraging cryptographic tools. Though strong privacy is appealing, it might be overkilled or even could be abused in some cases. In decentralized payment systems, anonymity poses great challenges to system's auditability, which is a crucial property for scenarios that require regulatory compliance and dispute arbitration guarantee. Aiming for a middle ground between privacy and auditability, we introduce the notion of decentralized confidential payment (DCP) system with auditability. In addition to offering transaction confidentiality, DCP supports privacy-preserving audit in which an external party can specify a set of transactions and then request the participant to prove the compliance with a large class of policies. We present a generic construction of auditable DCP system from integrated signature and encryption scheme and non-interactive zero-knowledge proof systems. We then instantiate of our generic construction by carefully designing the underlying building blocks, yielding a standalone cryptocurrency called PGC. In PGC, the setup is transparent trusted setup, transactions are less than 1.3KB and take under 38ms to generate and 15ms to verify. At the core of PGC is an additively homomorphic public-key encryption scheme that we introduce, twisted ElGamal, which is not only as secure as standard exponential ElGamal, but also quite friendly to Sigma protocols and range proofs. This enables us to easily devise zero-knowledge proofs for basic correctness of transactions as well as various application-dependent policies in a modular fashion. Moreover, it is pretty efficient. Compared with the most efficient reported implementation of Paillier PKE, twisted ElGamal is an order of magnitude better in key and ciphertext size and decryption speed (for small message space), two order of magnitude better in encryption speed. We believe twisted ElGamal is of independent interest on its own right.
We improve the fundamental security threshold of Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchain protocols, reflecting for the first time the positive effect of rounds with multiple honest leaders. Current analyses of the longest-chain rule in PoS blockchain protocols reduce consistency to the dynamics of an abstract, round-based block creation process determined by three probabilities: $p_\mathtt{A}$, the probability that a round has at least one adversarial leader; $p_\mathtt{h}$, the probability that a round has a single honest leader; and $p_\mathtt{H}$, the probability that a round has multiple, but honest, leaders. We present a consistency analysis that achieves the optimal threshold $p_\mathtt{h} + p_\mathtt{H} > p_\mathtt{A}$. This is a first in the literature and can be applied to both the simple synchronous setting and the setting with bounded delays. We also achieve the optimal consistency error $e^{-\Theta(k)}$, $k$ being the confirmation time. The consistency analyses in Ouroboros Praos (Eurocrypt 2018) and Genesis (CCS 2018) assume that $p_\mathtt{h} - p_\mathtt{H} > p_\mathtt{A}$; the analyses in Sleepy Consensus (Asiacrypt 2017) and Snow White (Fin. Crypto 2019) assume that $p_\mathtt{h} > p_\mathtt{A}$. Thus existing analyses either incur a penalty for multiply-honest rounds or treat them neutrally. In addition, previous analyses completely break down when $p_\mathtt{h} < p_\mathtt{A}$. Our new results can be directly applied to improve the consistency of these existing protocols. We emphasize that these thresholds determine the critical tradeoff between an honest majority, network delays, and consistency error. We complement our results with a consistency analysis in the setting where uniquely honest slots are rare, even letting $p_\mathtt{h} = 0$, under the added assumption that honest players adopt a consistent chain selection rule. Our analysis provides a direct connection between the Ouroboros analysis focusing on ``relative margin'' and the Sleepy analysis focusing on ``strong pivots.''
In the past few years, significant progresses on homomorphic encryption (HE) have been made toward both theory and practice. The most promising HE schemes are based on the hardness of the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem or its ring variant (RLWE). In this work, we present new conversion algorithms which switch between different (R)LWE-based HE schemes to take advantages of them. Specifically, we present and combine three ideas to improve the key-switching procedure between LWE ciphertexts, transformation from LWE to RLWE, as well as packing of multiple LWE ciphertexts in a single RLWE encryption. Finally, we demonstrate an application of building a secure channel between a client and a cloud server with lightweight encryption, low communication cost, and capability of homomorphic computation.
Threshold private set intersection enables Alice and Bob who hold sets $A$ and $B$ of size $n$ to compute the intersection $A \cap B$ if the sets do not differ by more than some threshold parameter $t$. In this work, we investigate the communication complexity of this problem and we establish the first upper and lower bounds. We show that any protocol has to have a communication complexity of $\Omega(t)$. We show that an almost matching upper bound of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(t)$ can be obtained via fully homomorphic encryption. We present a computationally more efficient protocol based on weaker assumptions, namely additively homomorphic encryption, with a communication complexity of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(t^2)$. For applications like biometric authentication, where a given fingerprint has to have a large intersection with a fingerprint from a database, our protocols may result in significant communication savings. Prior to this work, all previous protocols had a communication complexity of $\Omega(n)$. Our protocols are the first ones with communication complexities that mainly depend on the threshold parameter $t$ and only logarithmically on the set size $n$.
With the rapid increase in cloud computing, concerns surrounding data privacy, security, and confidentiality also have been increased significantly. Not only cloud providers are susceptible to internal and external hacks, but also in some scenarios, data owners cannot outsource the computation due to privacy laws such as GDPR, HIPAA, or CCPA. Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a groundbreaking invention in cryptography that, unlike traditional cryptosystems, enables computation on encrypted data without ever decrypting it. However, the most critical obstacle in deploying FHE at large-scale is the enormous computation overhead. In this paper, we present HEAX, a novel hardware architecture for FHE that achieves unprecedented performance improvement. HEAX leverages multiple levels of parallelism, ranging from ciphertext-level to fine-grained modular arithmetic level. Our first contribution is a new highly-parallelizable architecture for number-theoretic transform (NTT) which can be of independent interest as NTT is frequently used in many lattice-based cryptography systems. Building on top of NTT engine, we design a novel architecture for computation on homomorphically encrypted data. We also introduce several techniques to enable an end-to-end, fully pipelined design as well as reducing on-chip memory consumption. Our implementation on reconfigurable hardware demonstrates 164-268× performance improvement for a wide range of FHE parameters.
Logical cryptanalysis, first introduced by Massacci in 2000, is a viable alternative to common algebraic cryptanalysis techniques over boolean fields. With XOR operations being at the core of many cryptographic problems, recent research in this area has focused on handling XOR clauses efficiently. In this paper, we investigate solving the point decomposition step of the index calculus method for prime degree extension fields $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$, using SAT solving methods. We choose one SAT solver and we extend it by adding a novel breaking symmetry technique. While asymptotically solving the point decomposition problem with this method has exponential worst time complexity in the dimension $l$ of the vector space defining the factor base, experimental running times show that the chosen solver is significantly faster than current algebraic methods based on Gröbner basis computation. For the values $l$ and $n$ considered in the experiments, the solver is up to 300 times faster then MAGMA's F4 implementation, and this factor grows with $l$ and $n$.
A remarkable breakthrough in mathematics in recent years is the proof of the long-standing conjecture: sphere packing (i.e., packing unit balls) in the $E_8$ lattice is optimal in the sense of the best density \cite{V17} for sphere packing in $\mathbb{R}^8$. In this work, based on the $E_8$ lattice code, we design a mechanism for asymmetric key consensus from noise (AKCN), referred to as AKCN-E8, for error correction and key consensus. As a direct application of the AKCN-E8 code, we present highly practical key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) from the ideal lattice based on the ring learning with errors (RLWE) problem. Compared to the RLWE-based NewHope-KEM \cite{newhope-NIST}, which is a variant of NewHope-Usenix \cite{newhope15} and is now a promising candidate in the second round of NIST post-quantum cryptography (PQC) standardization competition, our AKCN-E8-KEM has the following advantages: * The size of shared-key is doubled.. * More compact ciphertexts, at the same or even higher security level. * More flexible parameter selection for tradeoffs among security, ciphertext size and error probability.
In the profiled side-channel analysis, deep learning-based techniques proved to be very successful even when attacking targets protected with countermeasures. Still, this does not mean that countermeasures do not make the attacks more difficult or that deep learning attacks will always succeed. As such, to improve the performance of attacks, an intuitive solution is to remove the effect of countermeasures. In this paper, we investigate whether we can consider certain types of countermeasures as noise and then use deep learning to remove that noise. We conduct a detailed analysis of four different types of noise and countermeasures either separately or combined and show that in all scenarios, denoising autoencoder improves the attack performance significantly.
Clustering is a common technique for data analysis, which aims to partition data into similar groups. When the data comes from different sources, it is highly desirable to maintain the privacy of each database. In this work, we study a popular clustering algorithm (K-means) and adapt it to the privacy-preserving context. Specifically, to construct our privacy-preserving clustering algorithm, we first propose an efficient batched Euclidean squared distance computation protocol in the adaptive amortizing setting, when one needs to compute the distance from the same point to other points. This protocol can also serve as a key building block in many real-world applications such as Bio-metric Identification. Furthermore, we construct a customized garbled circuit for computing the minimum value among shared values. We implement and evaluate our protocols to demonstrate their practicality and show that they are able to train datasets that are much larger and faster than in the previous work. The numerical results also show that the proposed protocol achieve almost the same accuracy compared to a K-means plain-text clustering algorithm.
Primality testing is a basic cryptographic task. But developers today are faced with complex APIs for primality testing, along with documentation that fails to clearly state the reliability of the tests being performed. This leads to the APIs being incorrectly used in practice, with potentially disastrous consequences. In an effort to overcome this, we present a primality test having a simplest-possible API: the test accepts a number to be tested and returns a Boolean indicating whether the input was composite or probably prime. For all inputs, the output is guaranteed to be correct with probability at least $1 - 2^{128}$. The test is performant: on random, odd, 1024-bit inputs, it is faster than the default test used in OpenSSL by 17\%. We investigate the impact of our new test on the cost of random prime generation, a key use case for primality testing. The OpenSSL developers have adopted our suggestions in full; our new API and primality test are scheduled for release in OpenSSL 3.0.
Dual system encryption is an important method used in pairing-based cryptography for constructing fully secure IBE, ABE and FE schemes. A long time open question is that, whether there is an analogue of dual system method in lattice, which can be used to prove the full security of lattice-based ABE or FE schemes. We solve this problem in this paper. We do this by introducing a new primitive called approximate inner product encryption (aIPE), which is the approximate version of the well known inner product encryption. We show that a fully secure ABE supporting CNF as its access policy can be constructed from a selectively secure aIPE and the LWE assumption. We also point out that the functionality of aIPE is included in FE for arbitrary circuits, which can be constructed from LWE assumption, hence the full security of our scheme can be totally based on the hardness of LWE.
LAC is a Ring Learning With Error based cryptosystem that has been proposed to the NIST call for post-quantum standardization and passed the first round of the submission process. The particularity of LAC is to use an error-correction code ensuring a high security level with small key sizes and small ciphertext sizes. LAC team proposes a CPA secure cryptosystem, LAC.CPA, and a CCA secure one, LAC.CCA, obtained by applying the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation on LAC.CPA. In this paper, we study the security of LAC Key Exchange (KE) mechanism, using LAC.CPA, in a misuse context: when the same secret key is reused for several key exchanges and an active adversary has access to a mismatch oracle. This oracle indicates information on the possible mismatch at the end of the KE protocol. In this context, we show that an attacker needs at most $8$ queries to the oracle to retrieve one coefficient of a static secret key. This result has been experimentally confirmed using the reference and optimized implementations of LAC. Since our attack can break the CPA version in a misuse context, the Authenticated KE protocol, based on the CCA version, is not impacted. However, this research provides a tight estimation of LAC resilience against this type of attacks.
Zero-knowledge proofs and in particular succinct non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (so called zk-SNARKs) are getting increasingly used in real-world applications, with cryptocurrencies being the prime example. Simulation extractability (SE) is a strong security notion of zk-SNARKs which informally ensures non-malleability of proofs. This property is acknowledged as being highly important by leading companies in this field such as Zcash and supported by various attacks against the malleability of cryptographic primitives in the past. Another problematic issue for the practical use of zk-SNARKs is the requirement of a fully trusted setup, as especially for large-scale decentralized applications finding a trusted party that runs the setup is practically impossible. Quite recently, the study of approaches to relax or even remove the trust in the setup procedure, and in particular subversion as well as updatable zk-SNARKs (with latter being the most promising approach), has been initiated and received considerable attention since then. Unfortunately, so far SE-SNARKs with aforementioned properties are only constructed in an ad-hoc manner and no generic techniques are available. In this paper we are interested in such generic techniques and therefore firstly revisit the only available lifting technique due to Kosba et al. (called COCO) to generically obtain SE-SNARKs. By exploring the design space of many recently proposed SNARK- and STARK-friendly symmetric-key primitives we thereby achieve significant improvements in the prover computation and proof size. Unfortunately, the COCO framework as well as our improved version (called OCOCO) is not compatible with updatable SNARKs. Consequently, we propose a novel generic lifting transformation called Lamassu. It is built using different underlying ideas compared to COCO (and OCOCO). In contrast to COCO it only requires key-homomorphic signatures (which allow to shift keys) covering well studied schemes such as Schnorr or ECDSA. This makes Lamassu highly interesting, as by using the novel concept of so called updatable signatures, which we introduce in this paper, we can prove that Lamassu preserves the subversion and in particular updatable properties of the underlying zk-SNARK. This makes Lamassu the first technique to also generically obtain SE subversion and updatable SNARKs. As its performance compares favorably to OCOCO, Lamassu is an attractive alternative that in contrast to OCOCO is only based on well established cryptographic assumptions.
In a transaction-output-based blockchain system, where each transaction spends UTXOs (the previously unspent transaction outputs), a user must provide a signature, or more precisely a \(\textit{scriptSig}\) for Bitcoin, to spend an UTXO, which proves the ownership of the spending output. When Pedersen commitment \(g^xh^a\) or ElGamal commitment \((g^xh^a,h^x)\) introduced into blockchain as transaction output, for supporting confidential transaction feature, where the input and output amounts in a transaction are hidden, the prior signature schemes such as Schnorr signature scheme and its variants does not directly work here if using the commitment as the public key, since nobody including the committer knows the private key of a \(g^xh^a\) when $a$ is not zero, meaning no one knows the $c$ such that \((g^c=g^xh^a)\). This is a signature scheme which is able to use the \(C=g^xh^a\) as the signature public key for any value of $a$. The signer, proceeding from a random Pedersen commitment \(R=g^{k_1}h^{k_2}\), generates a random bit sequence $e$, by multiplication of a stored private key $x$ with the bit sequence $e$ and by addition of the random number $k_1$ to get the $u$, by multiplication of the committed value $a$ with the bit sequence $e$ and by addition of the random number $k_2$ to get the $v$, finally constructs \(\sigma=(R,u,v)\) as the signature, with the corresponding public key $C$. In turn, the verifier calculates a Pedersen commitment \(S=g^uh^v\), and accepts the signature if \(S=RC^e\). For an electronic signature, a hash value $e$ is calculated from a random Pedersen commitment $R$, the Pedersen commitment $C$, and from the message $m$ to be signed. This signature scheme will be very helpful in the design of a non-interactive transaction in Mimblewimble.
Non-repudiation of messages generated by users is a desirable feature in a number of applications ranging from online banking to IoT scenarios. However, it requires certified public keys and usually results in poor usability as a user must carry around his certificate (e.g., in a smart-card) or must install it in all of his devices. A user-friendly alternative, adopted by several companies and national administrations, is to have a ``cloud-based'' PKI. In a nutshell, each user has a PKI certificate stored at a server in the cloud; users authenticate to the server---via passwords or one-time codes---and ask it to sign messages on their behalf. As such, there is no way for the server to prove to a third party that a signature on a given message was authorized by a user. As the server holds the user's certified key, it might as well have signed arbitrary messages in an attempt to impersonate that user. In other words, a user could deny having signed a message, by claiming that the signature was produced by the server without his consent. The same holds in case the secret key is derived deterministically from the user's password, for the server, by knowing the password, may still frame the user. In this paper we provide a "password-only" solution to non-repudiation of user messages by introducing Auditable Asymmetric Password Authenticated Public Key Establishment (A2PAKE). This is a PAKE-like protocol that generates an asymmetric key-pair where the public key is output to every participant, but the secret key is private output to just one of the parties (e.g., the user). Further, the protocol can be audited, i.e., given the public key output by a protocol run with a user, the server can prove to a third party that the corresponding secret key is held by that specific user. Thus, if the user signs messages with that secret key, then signatures are non-repudiable. We provide a universally composable definition of A2PAKE and an instantiation based on a distributed oblivious pseudo-random function. We also develop a prototype implementation of our instantiation and use it to evaluate its performance in realistic settings.
ARX-KW is a family of key wrapping construction based on add-rotate-xor primitives: the pseudo-random function SipHash for authentication and the stream cipher ChaCha for confidentiality. This paper presents ARX-KW, proposes a specific instantiation of ARX-KW and details the design decisions that were made.
Today, deep neural networks represent a common option when conducting the profiled side-channel analysis. Such techniques commonly do not require pre-processing, and yet, they can break targets that are even protected with countermeasures. Unfortunately, it is usually far from trivial to find neural network hyper-parameters that would result in such top-performing attacks. The hyper-parameter leading the training process is the number of epochs during which the training happens. If the training is too short, the network does not reach its full capacity, while if the training is too long, the network overfits, and consequently, is not able to generalize to unseen examples. Finding the right moment to stop the training process is particularly difficult for side-channel analysis as there are no clear connections between machine learning and side-channel metrics that govern the training and attack phases, respectively. In this paper, we tackle the problem of determining the correct epoch to stop the training in deep learning-based side-channel analysis. First, we explore how information is propagated through the hidden layers of a neural network, which allows us to monitor how training is evolving. Second, we demonstrate that the amount of information transferred to the output layer can be measured and used as a reference metric to determine the epoch at which the network offers optimal generalization. To validate the proposed methodology, we provide extensive experimental results that confirm the effectiveness of our metric of choice for avoiding overfitting in the profiled side-channel analysis.
Let $X \in {\mathbb{Z}}^{n \times m}$, with each entry independently and identically distributed from an integer Gaussian distribution. We consider the orthogonal lattice $\Lambda^\perp(X)$ of $X$, i.e., the set of vectors $\mathbf{v} \in {\mathbb{Z}}^m$ such that $X \mathbf{v}= \mathbf{0}$. In this work, we prove probabilistic upper bounds on the smoothing parameter and the $(m-n)$-th minimum of $\Lambda^\perp(X)$. These bounds improve and the techniques build upon prior works of Agrawal, Gentry, Halevi and Sahai [Asiacrypt'13], and of Aggarwal and Regev [Chicago J. Theoret. Comput. Sci.'16].
Horizontal attacks are a suitable tool to evaluate the (nearly) worst-case side-channel security level of ECC implementations, due to the fact that they allow extracting a large amount of information from physical observations. Motivated by the difficulty of mounting such attacks and inspired by evaluation strategies for the security of symmetric cryptography implementations, we derive shortcut formulas to estimate the success rate of horizontal differential power analysis attacks against ECSM implementations, for efficient side-channel security evaluations. We then discuss the additional leakage assumptions that we exploit for this purpose, and provide experimental confirmation that the proposed tools lead to good predictions of the attacks' success.
Blockchain technologies have received a considerable amount of attention, and immutability is essential property of blockchain which is paramount to applications such as cryptocurrency. However, ``Right to be Fogotten" has been imposed in new European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, making legally incompatible with immutalbe blockchains. Moveover, illicit data stored in immutable blockchain poses numerous challenge for law enforcement agencies such as Interpol. Therefore, it is imperative (even legally required) to design efficient redactable blockchain protocols in a controlled way. In this paper, we present a redactable proof-of-stake blockchain protocol in the permissionless setting with fast confirmation. Our protocol offers public verifiability for redactable chains, and to prevent an adversary from targeted attack, also uses a verifiable random function to randomly select voters for redaction on different slots in a private and non-interactive way. Compared to previous solutions in permissionless setting, our redaction operation can be completed quickly, even only within one block in synchronous network, which is desirable for redacting harmful or sensitive data. Moreover, our protocol is compatible with most current proof-of-stake blockchains requiring only minimal changes. Furthermore, using simulation techniques, we prove that our protocol can achieve the security property of redactable common prefix, chain quality, and chain growth. Finally, we implement our protocol and provide experimental results showing that compared to immutable blockchain, the overhead incurred for different numbers of redactions in the chain is minimal.
As fault based cryptanalysis is becoming more and more of a practical threat, it is imperative to make efforts to devise suitable countermeasures. In this regard, the so-called ``infective countermeasures'' have garnered particular attention from the community due to its ability in inhibiting differential fault attacks without explicitly detecting the fault. We observe that despite being adopted over a decade ago, a systematic study of infective countermeasures is missing from the literature. Moreover, there seems to be a lack of proper security analysis of the schemes proposed, as quite a few of them have been broken promptly. Our first contribution comes in the form of a generalization of infective schemes which aids us with a better insight into the vulnerabilities, scopes for cost reduction and possible improvements. This way, we are able to propose lightweight alternatives of two existing schemes. Further we analyze shortcomings of LatinCrypt'12 and CHES'14 schemes and propose a simple patch for the former.
Microarchitecture based side-channel attacks are common threats nowadays. Intel SGX technology provides a strong isolation from an adversarial OS, however, does not guarantee protection against side-channel attacks. In this paper, we analyze the security of the mbedTLS binary GCD algorithm, an implementation that offers interesting challenges when compared for example with OpenSSL, due to the usage of very tight loops in the former. Using practical experiments we demonstrate the mbedTLS binary GCD implementation is vulnerable to side-channel analysis using the SGX-Step framework against mbedTLS based SGX enclaves. We analyze the security of some use cases of this algorithm in this library, resulting in the discovery of a new vulnerability in the ECDSA code path that allows a single-trace attack against this implementation. This vulnerability is three-fold interesting: * It resides in the implementation of a countermeasure which makes it more dangerous due to the false state of security the countermeasure currently offers. * It reduces mbedTLS ECDSA security to an integer factorization problem. * An unexpected GCD call inside the ECDSA code path compromises the countermeasure. We also cover an orthogonal use case, this time inside the mbedTLS RSA code path during the computation of a CRT parameter when loading a private key. The attack also exploits the binary GCD implementation threat, showing how a single vulnerable primitive leads to multiple vulnerabilities. We demonstrate both security threats with end-to-end attacks using 1000 trials each, showing in both cases single-trace attacks can be achieved with success rates very close to 100%.
This paper presents a set of efficient and parameterized hardware accelerators that target post-quantum lattice-based cryptographic schemes, including a versatile cSHAKE core, a binary-search CDT-based Gaussian sampler, and a pipelined NTT-based polynomial multiplier, among others. Unlike much of prior work, the accelerators are fully open-sourced, are designed to be constant-time, and are parameterized at compile-time to support different parameters without the need for re-writing the hardware implementation. These flexible, to-be publicly-available accelerators are used to demonstrate the first hardware-software co-design using RISC-V of the post-quantum lattice-based signature scheme qTESLA with provably secure parameters. In particular, we demonstrate that the NIST's Round 2 level 1 and level 3 qTESLA variants achieve over a 40-100x speedup for key generation, about a 10x speedup for signing, and about a 16x speedup for verification, compared to the baseline RISC-V software-only implementation. For instance, this corresponds to execution in 7.7, 34.4, and 7.8 milliseconds for key generation, signing, and verification, respectively, for qTESLA's level 1 parameter set on an Artix-7 FPGA, demonstrating the feasibility of the scheme for embedded applications.
Multivariate encryption schemes are public key encryption schemes using multivariate polynomials over finite fields. In 2020, Jiahui Chen et al. proposed a new multivariate encryption scheme. In order to construct the public key consisting of quadratic polynomials, they used the minus and plus modifiers to prevent known attacks, such as linear equations attack, minRank attack and algebraic attack. However, in this paper we show that even if such modifiers are used, an attack using linear algebra is valid for their scheme. In fact, our attack can break the claimed 80 and 128-bit parameters in the complexity of around 27 and 31 bits, respectively.
We present Lyra2, a password hashing scheme (PHS) based on cryptographic sponges. Lyra2 was designed to be strictly sequential (i.e., not easily parallelizable), providing strong security even against attackers that uses multiple processing cores (e.g., custom hardware or a powerful GPU). At the same time, it is very simple to implement in software and allows legitimate users to fine tune its memory and processing costs according to the desired level of security against brute force password-guessing. Lyra2 is an improvement of the recently proposed Lyra algorithm, providing an even higher security level against different attack venues and overcoming some limitations of this and other existing schemes.
We propose a modular security treatment of blind signatures derived from linear identification schemes in the random oracle model. To this end, we present a general framework that captures several well known schemes from the literature and allows to prove their security. Our modular security reduction introduces a new security notion for identification schemes called One-More-Man In the Middle Security which we show equivalent to the classical One-More-Unforgeability notion for blind signatures. We also propose a generalized version of the Forking Lemma due to Bellare and Neven (CCS 2006) and show how it can be used to greatly improve the understandability of the classical security proofs for blind signatures schemes by Pointcheval and Stern (Journal of Cryptology 2000).
Group signature is a central tool for privacy-preserving protocols, ensuring authentication, anonymity and accountability. It has been massively used in cryptography, either directly or through variants such as direct anonymous attestations. However, it remains a complex tool, especially if ones wants to avoid proving security in the random oracle model. In this work, we propose a new group signature scheme proven secure without random oracles which significantly decreases the complexity in comparison with the state-of-the-art. More specifically, we halve both the size and the computational cost compared to the most efficient alternative in the same model. Moreover, our construction is also competitive against the most efficient ones in the random oracle model. Our construction is based on a tailored combination of two popular signatures, which avoids the explicit use of encryption schemes or zero-knowledge proofs while signing. It is flexible enough to achieve security in different models and is thus suitable for most contexts.
Round complexity is one of the fundamental problems in zero-knowledge proof systems. Non-malleable zero-knowledge (NMZK) protocols are zero-knowledge protocols that provide security even when man-in-the-middle adversaries interact with a prover and a verifier simultaneously. It is known that constant-round public-coin NMZK Arguments for NP can be constructed by assuming the existence of collision-resistant hash functions (Pass and Rosen STOC'05) and the four-round private-coin NMZK Arguments for NP can be constructed in the plain model by assuming the existence of one-way functions (Goyal, Richelson, Rosen and Vald FOCS'14 and Ciampi, Ostrovsky, Siniscalchi and Visconti TCC'17). In this paper, we present a six-round public-coin NMZK argument of knowledge system assuming the existence of collision-resistant hash functions and a three-round private-coin NMZK argument system from multi-collision resistance of hash functions assumption in the keyless setting.
During the last decade, several misbehaving Certificate Authorities (CA) have issued fraudulent TLS certificates allowing MITM kinds of attacks which result in serious security incidents. In order to avoid such incidents, Yakubov et al. recently proposed a new PKI architecture where CAs issue, revoke, and validate X.509 certificates on a public blockchain. However, in their proposal TLS clients are subject to MITM kinds of attacks and certificate transparency is not fully provided. In this paper, we eliminate the issues of the Yakubov et al.’s scheme and propose a new PKI architecture based on permissioned blockchain with PBFT consensus mechanism where the consensus nodes utilize a dynamic threshold signature scheme to generate signed blocks. In this way, the trust to the intermediary entities can be completely eliminated during certificate validation. Our scheme enjoys the dynamic property of the threshold signature because TLS clients do not have to change the verification key even if the validator set is dynamic. We implement our proposal on private Ethereum network to demonstrate the experimental results. The results show that our proposal has negligible overhead during TLS handshake. The certificate validation duration is less than the duration in the conventional PKI and Yakubov et al.’s scheme.
Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) Matrix plays a crucial role in designing cryptosystems. In this paper we mainly talk about constructing lightweight Hadamard MDS matrices based on subquadratic multipliers over $GF(2^4)$. We firstly propose subquadratic Hadamard matrix-vector product formulae (HMVP), and provide two new XOR count metrics. To the best of our knowledge, subquadratic multipliers have not been used to construct MDS matrices. Furthermore, combined with HMVP formulae we design a construction algorithm to find lightweight Hadamard MDS matrices under our XOR count metric. Applying our algorithms, we successfully find MDS matrices with the state-of-the-art fewest XOR counts for $4 \times 4$ and $8 \times 8$ involutory and non-involutory MDS matrices. Experiment results show that our candidates save up to $40.63\%$ and $10.34\%$ XOR gates for $8 \times 8$ and $4 \times 4$ matrices over $GF(2^4)$ respectively.
At CRYPTO 2017, Rosca et al. introduce a new variant of the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem, called the Middle-Product LWE (MP-LWE). The hardness of this new assumption is based on the hardness of the Polynomial LWE (P-LWE) problem parameterized by a set of polynomials, making it more secure against the possible weakness of a single defining polynomial. As a cryptographic application, they also provide an encryption scheme based on the MP-LWE problem. In this paper, we propose a deterministic variant of their encryption scheme, which does not need Gaussian sampling and is thus simpler than the original one. Still, it has the same quasi-optimal asymptotic key and ciphertext sizes. The main ingredient for this purpose is the Learning With Rounding (LWR) problem which has already been used to derandomize LWE type encryption. The hardness of our scheme is based on a new assumption called Middle-Product Computational Learning With Rounding, an adaption of the computational LWR problem over rings, introduced by Chen et al. at ASIACRYPT 2018. We prove that this new assumption is as hard as the decisional version of MP-LWE and thus benefits from worst-case to average-case hardness guarantees.
Tweakable TWINE (T-TWINE) is a new lightweight tweakable block cipher family proposed by Sakamoto $et$ $al$. at IWSEC 2019. T-TWINE is the first Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) that is built on Generalized Feistel Structure (GFS). It is based on the TWINE block cipher in addition to a simple tweak scheduling based on SKINNY’s tweakey schedule. Similar to TWINE, it has two versions, namely, T-TWINE-80 and T-TWINE-128, both have a block length of 64 bits and employ keys of length 80 and 128 bits, respectively. In this paper, we present impossible differential attacks against reduced-round versions of T-TWINE-80 and T-TWINE-128. First, we present an 18-round impossible differential distinguisher against T-TWINE. Then, using this distinguisher, we attack 25 and 27 rounds of T-TWINE-80 and T-TWINE-128, respectively.
During the past two decades there has been a great deal of research published on masked hardware implementations of AES and other cryptographic primitives. Unfortunately, many hardware masking techniques can lead to increased latency compared to unprotected circuits for algorithms such as AES, due to the high-degree of nonlinear functions in their designs. In this paper, we present a hardware masking technique which does not increase the latency for such algorithms. It is based on the LUT-based Masked Dual-Rail with Pre-charge Logic (LMDPL) technique presented at CHES 2014. First, we show 1-glitch extended strong noninterference of a nonlinear LMDPL gadget under the 1-glitch extended probing model. We then use this knowledge to design an AES implementation which computes a full AES-128 operation in 10 cycles and a full AES-256 operation in 14 cycles. We perform practical side-channel analysis of our implementation using the Test Vector Leakage Assessment (TVLA) methodology and analyze univariate as well as bivariate t-statistics to demonstrate its DPA resistance level
Many companies provide neural network prediction services to users for a wide range of applications. However, current prediction systems compromise one party's privacy: either the user has to send sensitive inputs to the service provider for classification, or the service provider must store its proprietary neural networks on the user's device. The former harms the personal privacy of the user, while the latter reveals the service provider's proprietary model. We design, implement, and evaluate Delphi, a secure prediction system that allows two parties to execute neural network inference without revealing either party's data. Delphi approaches the problem by simultaneously co-designing cryptography and machine learning. We first design a hybrid cryptographic protocol that improves upon the communication and computation costs over prior work. Second, we develop a planner that automatically generates neural network architecture configurations that navigate the performance-accuracy trade-offs of our hybrid protocol. Together, these techniques allow us to achieve a 22x improvement in online prediction latency compared to the state-of-the-art prior work.
We present and evaluate a custom extension to the RISC-V instruction set for finite fields arithmetic. The result serves as a very compact approach to software-hardware co-design of PQC implementations in the context of small embedded processors such as smartcards. The extension provides instructions that implement finite field operations with subsequent reduction of the result. As small finite fields are used in various PQC schemes, such instructions can provide a considerable speedup for an otherwise software-based implementation. Furthermore, we create a prototype implementation of the presented instructions for the extendable VexRiscv core, integrate the result into a chip design, and evaluate the design on two different FPGA platforms. The effectiveness of the extension is evaluated by using the instructions to optimize the Kyber and Newhope key-encapsulation schemes. To that end, we also present an optimized software implementation for the standard RISC-V instruction set for the polynomial arithmetic underlying those schemes, which serves as basis for comparison. Both variants are tuned on an assembler level to optimally use the processor pipelines of contemporary RISC-V CPUs. The result shows a speedup for the polynomial arithmetic of up to 85% over the basic software implementation. Using the custom instructions drastically reduces the code and data size of the implementation without introducing runtime-performance penalties at a small cost in circuit size. When used in the selected schemes, the custom instructions can be used to replace a full general purpose multiplier to achieve very compact implementations.
Recently proposed searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) scheme HXT improves the OXT by avoiding the KPRP leakage at the cost of increasing the storage by two orders of magnitude. In this paper, we reconsider the principle of designing SSE protocols to prevent KPRP leakage. At first, we introduce a new primitive called subset membership check (SMC), where a set is encrypted such that its subset membership can be checked only through a protocol between Sender and Tester. The security of SMC requires that nothing is revealed other than the membership of a subset after each execution of the protocol. We propose a hash-based SMC implementation with efficient computation, communication, and storage. Secondly, based on the hash-based SMC, we present two practical SSE protocols that support conjunctive queries without KPRP leakage. Our first protocol, called ‘Practical Hidden Cross-Tags’ (PHXT), maintains the same storage size as OXT while preserving the same privacy and functionality as HXT. Our second protocol, called ‘Fast Hidden Cross-Tags’ (FHXT), further optimizes the performances of PHXT through eliminating the expensive Diffie-Hellman type operations. Compared with HXT, our FHXT reduces the storage size, server’s computational costs, client’s computational costs, and the communication overhead by 96.09%, 98.44%, 79.54%, and 78.57%, respectively.
As the need for lightweight cryptography has grown even more due to the evolution of the Internet of Things, it has become a greater challenge for cryptographers to design ultra lightweight stream ciphers in compliance with the rule of thumb that the internal state size should be at least twice as the key size to defend against generic Time-Memory-Data Tradeoff (TMDT) attacks. However, recently in 2015, Armknecht and Mikhalev sparked a new light on designing keystream generators (KSGs), which in turn yields stream ciphers, with small internal states, called KSG with Keyed Update Function (KSG with KUF), and gave a concrete construction named Sprout. But, currently, security analysis of KSGs with KUF in a general setting is almost non-existent. Our contribution in this paper is two-fold. 1) We give a general mathematical setting for KSGs with KUF, and for the first time, analyze a class of such KSGs, called KSGs with Boolean Keyed Feedback Function (KSG with Boolean KFF), generically. In particular, we develop two generic attack algorithms applicable to any KSG with Boolean KFF having almost arbitrary output and feedback functions where the only requirement is that the secret key incorporation is biased. We introduce an upper bound for the time complexity of the first algorithm. Our extensive experiments validate our algorithms and assumptions made thereof. 2) We study Sprout to show the effectiveness of our algorithms in a practical instance. A straightforward application of our generic algorithm yields one of the most successful attacks on Sprout.
The IEEE Std 802.15.6 is the latest international standard for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). The security of communication in this standard is based upon four elliptic-curve based key agreement protocols. These protocols have been shown to exhibit serious security vulnerabilities but surprisingly, do not provision any privacy guarantees. To date, no suitable key agreement protocol has been proposed which fulfils all the requisite objectives for IEEE Std 802.15.6. In this paper two key agreement protocols are presented which, in addition to being efficient and provisioning advance security properties, also offer the essential privacy attributes of anonymity and unlinkability. The protocols are also quantum-safe as they are independent of any public-key based operations. We develop a formal security and privacy model in an appropriate complexity-theoretic framework and prove the proposed protocols secure in this model.
Centralized pools and renting of mining power are considered as sources of possible censorship threats and even 51% attacks for decentralized cryptocurrencies. Non-outsourceable Proof-of-Work schemes have been proposed to tackle these issues. However, tenets in the folklore say that such schemes could potentially be bypassed by using escrow mechanisms. In this work, we propose a concrete example of such a mechanism which is using collateralized smart contracts. Our approach allows miners to bypass non-outsourceable Proof-of-Work schemes if the underlying blockchain platform supports smart contracts in a sufficiently advanced language. In particular, the language should allow access to the PoW solution. At a high level, our approach requires the miner to lock collateral covering the reward amount and protected by a smart contract that acts as an escrow. The smart contract has logic that allows the pool to collect the collateral as soon as the miner collects any block reward. We propose two variants of the approach depending on when the collateral is bound to the block solution. Using this, we show how to bypass previously proposed non-outsourceable Proof-of-Work schemes (with the notable exception for strong non-outsourceable schemes) and show how to build mining pools for such schemes.
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems are currently being prepared for real-world deployment, but they face strong opposition over privacy concerns. Position beacon messages are the main culprit, being broadcast in cleartext and pseudonymously signed up to 10 times per second. So far, no practical solutions have been proposed to en- crypt or anonymously authenticate V2V messages. We propose two cryptographic innovations that enhance the privacy of V2V communication. As a core contribution, we introduce zone-encryption schemes, where vehicles generate and authentically distribute encryption keys associated to static geographic zones close to their location. Zone encryption provides security against eavesdropping, and, combined with a suitable anonymous authentication scheme, ensures that messages can only be sent by genuine vehicles, while adding only 224 Bytes of cryptographic overhead to each message. Our second contribution is an authentication mechanism fine-tuned to the needs of V2V which allows vehicles to authentically distribute keys, and is called dynamic group signatures with attributes. Our instantiation features unlimited locally generated pseudonyms, negligible credential download-and-storage costs, identity recovery by a trusted authority, and compact signatures of 216 Bytes at a 131-bit security level.
Secure multiparty computation (MPC) has been repeatedly optimized, and protocols with two communication rounds and strong security guarantees have been achieved. While progress has been made constructing non-interactive protocols with just one-round of online communication (i.e., non-interactive MPC or NI-MPC), since correct evaluation must be guaranteed with only one round, these protocols are by their nature vulnerable to the residual function attack in the standard model. This is because a party that receives a garbled circuit may repeatedly evaluate the circuit locally, while varying their own inputs and fixing the input of others to learn the values entered by other participants. We present the first MPC protocol with a one-round online phase that is secure against the residual function attack. We also present rigorous proofs of correctness and security in the covert adversary model, a reduction of the malicious model that is stronger than the semi-honest model and better suited for modeling the behaviour of parties in the real world, for our protocol. Furthermore, we rigorously analyze the communication and computational complexity of current state of the art protocols which require two rounds of communication or one-round during the online-phase with a reduced security requirement, and demonstrate that our protocol is comparable to or outperforms their complexity.
Memory fault attacks, inducing errors in computations, have been an ever-evolving threat to cryptographic schemes since their discovery for cryptography by Boneh et al. (Eurocrypt 1997). Initially requiring physical tampering with hardware, the software-based rowhammer attack put forward by Kim et al. (ISCA 2014) enabled fault attacks also through malicious software running on the same host machine. This led to concerning novel attack vectors, for example on deterministic signature schemes, whose approach to avoid dependency on (good) randomness renders them vulnerable to fault attacks. This has been demonstrated in realistic adversarial settings in a series of recent works. However, a unified formalism of different memory fault attacks, enabling also to argue the security of countermeasures, is missing yet. In this work, we suggest a generic extension for existing security models that enables a game-based treatment of cryptographic fault resilience. Our modeling specifies exemplary memory fault attack types of different strength, ranging from random bit-flip faults to differential (rowhammer-style) faults to full adversarial control on indicated memory variables. We apply our model first to deterministic signatures to revisit known fault attacks as well as to establish provable guarantees of fault resilience for proposed fault-attack countermeasures. In a second application to nonce-misuse resistant authenticated encryption, we provide the first fault-attack treatment of the SIV mode of operation and give a provably secure fault-resilient variant.
Ring signatures, introduced by [RST01], are a variant of digital signatures which certify that one among a particular set of parties has endorsed a message while hiding which party in the set was the signer. Ring signatures are designed to allow anyone to attach anyone else's name to a signature, as long as the signer's own name is also attached. But what guarantee do ring signatures provide if a purported signatory wishes to denounce a signed message---or alternatively, if a signatory wishes to later come forward and claim ownership of a signature? Prior security definitions for ring signatures do not give a conclusive answer to this question: under most existing definitions, the guarantees could go either way. That is, it is consistent with some standard definitions that a non-signer might be able to repudiate a signature that he did not produce, or that this might be impossible. Similarly, a signer might be able to later convincingly claim that a signature he produced is indeed his own, or not. Any of these guarantees might be desirable. For instance, a whistleblower might have reason to want to later claim an anonymously released signature, or a person falsely implicated in a crime associated with a ring signature might wish to denounce the signature that is framing them and damaging their reputation. In other circumstances, it might be desirable that even under duress, a member of a ring cannot produce proof that he did or did not sign a particular signature. In any case, a guarantee one way or the other seems highly desirable. In this work, we formalize definitions and give constructions of the new notions of repudiable, unrepudiable, claimable, and unclaimable ring signatures. Our repudiable construction is based on VRFs, which are implied by several number-theoretic assumptions (including strong RSA or bilinear maps); our claimable construction is a black-box transformation from any standard ring signature scheme to a claimable one; and our unclaimable construction is derived from the lattice-based ring signatures of [BK10], which rely on hardness of SIS. Our repudiable construction also provides a new construction of standard ring signatures.
Deep learning based side-channel analysis has seen a rise in popularity over the last few years. A lot of work is done to understand the inner workings of the neural networks used to perform the attacks and a lot is still left to do. However, finding a metric suitable for evaluating the capacity of the neural networks is an open problem that is discussed in many articles. We propose an answer to this problem by introducing an online evaluation metric dedicated to the context of side-channel analysis and use it to perform early stopping on existing convolutional neural networks found in the literature. This metric compares the performance of a network on the training set and on the validation set to detect underfitting and overfitting. Consequently, we improve the performance of the networks by finding their best training epoch and thus reduce the number of traces used by 30%. The training time is also reduced for most of the networks considered.
Machine learning tools have illustrated their potential in many significant sectors such as healthcare and finance, to aide in deriving useful inferences. The sensitive and confidential nature of the data, in such sectors, raises natural concerns for the privacy of data. This motivated the area of Privacy-preserving Machine Learning (PPML) where privacy of the data is guaranteed. Typically, ML techniques require large computing power, which leads clients with limited infrastructure to rely on the method of Secure Outsourced Computation (SOC). In SOC setting, the computation is outsourced to a set of specialized and powerful cloud servers and the service is availed on a pay-per-use basis. In this work, we explore PPML techniques in the SOC setting for widely used ML algorithms-- Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, and Neural Networks. We propose BLAZE, a blazing fast PPML framework in the three server setting tolerating one malicious corruption over a ring ($\mathbb{Z}_{2^{\ell}}$). BLAZE achieves the stronger security guarantee of fairness (all honest servers get the output whenever the corrupt server obtains the same). Leveraging an input-independent preprocessing phase, BLAZE has a fast input-dependent online phase relying on efficient PPML primitives such as: (i) A dot product protocol for which the communication in the online phase is independent of the vector size, the first of its kind in the three server setting; (ii) A method for truncation that shuns evaluating expensive circuit for Ripple Carry Adders (RCA) and achieves a constant round complexity. This improves over the truncation method of ABY3 (Mohassel et al., CCS 2018) that uses RCA and consumes a round complexity that is of the order of the depth of RCA (which is same as the underlying ring size); (iii) Secure Comparison protocol that requires only one round in the online phase as opposed to the solution of ASTRA (Chaudhari et al., CCSW 2019), which requires three rounds. An extensive benchmarking of BLAZE for the aforementioned ML algorithms over a 64-bit ring in both WAN and LAN settings shows massive improvements over ABY3. Concretely, we observe improvements up to $\mathbf{333\times}$ for Linear Regression, $\mathbf{146 \times}$ for Logistic Regression and $\mathbf{301\times}$ for Neural Networks over WAN. Similarly, we show improvements up to $\mathbf{2610\times}$ for Linear Regression, $\mathbf{820\times}$ for Logistic Regression and $\mathbf{303\times}$ for Neural Networks over LAN.
We present efficient and compact hardware/software co-design implementations of the Supersingular Isogeny Key Encapsulation (SIKE) protocol on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In order to be better equipped for different post-quantum scenarios, our architectures were designed to feature high-flexibility by covering all the currently available parameter sets and with support for primes up to 1016 bits. In particular, any of the current SIKE parameters equivalent to the post-quantum security of AES-128/192/256 and SHA3-256 can be selected and run on-the-fly. This security scalability property, together with the small footprint and efficiency of our architectures, makes them ideal for embedded applications in a post-quantum world. In addition, the proposed implementations exhibit regular, constant-time execution, which provides protection against timing and simple side-channel attacks. Our results demonstrate that supersingular isogeny-based primitives such as SIDH and SIKE can indeed be deployed for embedded applications featuring competitive performance. For example, our smallest architecture based on a 128-bit MAC unit takes only 3415 slices, 21 BRAMs and 57 DSPs on a Virtex 7 690T and can perform key generation, encapsulation and decapsulation in 14.4, 24.4 and 26.0 milliseconds for SIKEp434 and in 52.3, 86.4 and 93.2 milliseconds for SIKEp751, respectively.
SNOW 3G is one of the core algorithms for confidentiality and integrity in several 3GPP wireless communication standards, includ- ing the new Next Generation (NG) 5G. It is believed to be resistant to classical cryptanalysis. In this paper, we show that SNOW 3G can be broken by a fault attack based on bitstream modification. By changing the content of some look-up tables in the bitstream, we reduce the non- linear state updating function of SNOW 3G to a linear one. As a result, it becomes possible to recover the key from the keystream. To our best knowledge, this is the first successful bitstream modification attack on SNOW 3G. We propose a countermeasure which blows-up the number of candidate points for fault injection, making the presented attack infeasible in practice.
One of the most significant challenges in the design of blockchain protocols is increasing their transaction-processing throughput. In this work we put forth for the first time a formal execution model that enables to express transaction throughput while supporting formal security arguments regarding persistence and liveness. We then present a protocol in the proof-of-stake setting achieving near-optimal throughput under adaptive active corruption of any minority of the stake.
Aigis-Enc is an encryption algorithm based on asymmetrical LWE. In this algorithm, the compression process is utilized during both key generation and encryption (which is equivalent to add some LWR noise). Then encapsulation is realized by FO transformation. It is well known that FO transformation is not considered for discussing CPA security. On the other hand, since the security reduction of LWR is hard to proceed, it is not considered for discussing the CPA security of Aigis-Enc. But compression must be put into consideration when we discuss decryption failure probability. In other words, when we discuss the CPA security of Aigis-Enc, the compression and FO transformation are ignored. But when decryption failure probability is discussed, compression should be taken into consideration while FO transformation remains ignored. According to the assumptions above, Aigis-Enc designers claim that the CPA security of Aigis-Enc is approximately equal to that of the symmetrical LWE scheme in the same scale, and the decryption failure probability of Aigis-Enc is far below that of the symmetrical LWE scheme in the same scale. In this paper, we make a thorough comparison between Aigis-Enc (with the recommended parameters) and the symmetrical LWE encryption scheme in the same scale. Our conclusion is as followed: (1) The comparison on CPA security. The former’s is 160.898, and the latter’s is 161.836. (2) The comparison on computation complexity. In key generation phase, the ratio of the former and the latter on sampling amount of distribution \(\left[ {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}} 0&1\\ {\frac{1}{2}}&{\frac{1}{2}} \end{array}} \right]\) is 5:4; In encryption phase, that ratio is 19:14. The other computations remain the same. (3) The comparison on decryption failure probability. The former’s is $2^{-128.699}$, the latter's is $2^{-67.0582}$. The comparison seems to be dramatic. But in fact, we can slightly increase some traffic to keep failure probability unchanged. In other words, by compressing less to keep decryption failure probability unchanged. In specific: we change the parameters \(\left( {{d_1},{d_2},{d_3}} \right)\) from \(\left( {9,9,4} \right)\) to \(\left( {10,10,4} \right)\), which means a large part of the public key remains the same, the small part of the public key changes from 9 bits per entry into 10bits. A large part of the ciphertext changes from 9 bits per entry into 10 bits, the small part of the ciphertext remains the same. As thus, the communication traffic increases less than $\frac{1}{9}$, while the decryption failure probability is lower than $2^{-128.699}$. We generalize those attacks presented by designers of Aigis-Enc, including primal attacks and dual attacks. More detailedly, our attacks are more extensive, simpler, and clearer. With them, we obtain the optimal attacks and “the optimal-optimal attack” on Aigis-Enc and the symmetrical LWE scheme in the same scale.
The concrete efficiency of secure computation has been the focus of many recent works. In this work, we present concretely-efficient protocols for secure $3$-party computation (3PC) over a ring of integers modulo $2$^$l$ tolerating one corruption, both with semi-honest and malicious security. Owing to the fact that computation over ring emulates computation over the real-world system architectures, secure computation over ring has gained momentum of late. Cast in the offline-online paradigm, our constructions present the most efficient online phase in concrete terms. In the semi-honest setting, our protocol requires communication of $2$ ring elements per multiplication gate during the online phase, attaining a per-party cost of less than one element. This is achieved for the first time in the regime of $3$PC. In the malicious setting, our protocol requires communication of $4$ elements per multiplication gate during the online phase, beating the state-of-the-art protocol by $5$ elements. Realized with both the security notions of selective abort and fairness, the malicious protocol with fairness involves slightly more communication than its counterpart with abort security for the output gates alone. We apply our techniques from $3$PC in the regime of secure server-aided machine-learning (ML) inference for a range of prediction functions-- linear regression, linear SVM regression, logistic regression, and linear SVM classification. Our setting considers a model-owner with trained model parameters and a client with a query, with the latter willing to learn the prediction of her query based on the model parameters of the former. The inputs and computation are outsourced to a set of three non-colluding servers. Our constructions catering to both semi-honest and the malicious world, invariably perform better than the existing constructions.
The Supersingular Isogeny-based Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol (SIDH) was introduced by Jao an De Feo in 2011. SIDH operates on supersingular elliptic curves defined over quadratic extension fields of the form GF($p^2$), where $p$ is a large prime number of the form $p = 4^{e_A} 3^{e_B} - 1,$ where $e_A, e_B$ are positive integers such that $4^{e_A} \approx 3^{e_B}.$ In this paper, a variant of the SIDH protocol that we dubbed extended SIDH (eSIDH) is presented. The eSIDH variant makes use of primes of the form, $p = 4^{e_A} \ell_B^{e_B}\ell_C^{e_C} f - 1.$ Here $\ell_B, \ell_C $ are two small prime numbers; $f$ is a cofactor; and $e_A, e_B$ and $e_C$ are positive integers such that $4^{e_A} \approx \ell_B^{e_B}\ell_C^{e_C}.$ We show that for many relevant instantiations of the SIDH protocol, this new family of primes enjoys a faster field arithmetic than the one associated to traditional SIDH primes. Furthermore, the proposed eSIDH protocol preserves the length and format of SIDH private/public keys, and its richer opportunities for parallelism yields a noticeable speedup factor when implemented on multi-core platforms. Using a single-core SIDH $p_{751}$ implementation as a baseline, a parallel eSIDH $p_{765}$ instantiation yields an acceleration factor of $1.05, 1.30$ and $1.41,$ when implemented on $k = \{1, 2, 3\}$-core processors. In addition, eSIDH $p_{765}$ yields an acceleration factor of $1.050, 1.160$ and $1.162.$ when both protocols are implemented on $k = \{1, 2, 3\}$-core processors. To our knowledge, this work reports the first multi-core implementation of SIDH.
Password authenticated key establishment (PAKE) is a cryptographic primitive that allows two parties who share a low-entropy secret (a password) to securely establish cryptographic keys in the absence of public key infrastructure. We propose the first quantum-resistant password-authenticated key exchange scheme based on supersingular elliptic curve isogenies. The scheme is built upon supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman, and uses the password to generate permutations which obscure the auxiliary points. We include elements of a security proof, and discuss roadblocks to obtaining a proof in the BPR model. We also include some performance results.
SPAKE2 is a balanced password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocol, proposed by Abdalla and Pointcheval at CTRSA 2005. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, SPAKE2 is one of the balanced PAKE candidates currently under consideration for standardization by the CFRG, together with SPEKE, CPace, and J-PAKE. In this paper, we show that SPAKE2 achieves perfect forward security in the random-oracle model under the Gap Diffie-Hellman assumption. Unlike prior results, which either did not consider forward security or only proved a weak form of it, our results guarantee the security of the derived keys even for sessions that were created with the active involvement of the attacker, as long as the parties involved in the protocol are not corrupted when these sessions take place. Finally, our proofs also demonstrate that SPAKE2 is flexible with respect to the generation of its global parameters M and N. This includes the cases where M is a uniform group element and M=N or the case where M and N are chosen as the output of a random oracle.
Succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) are highly efficient certificates of membership in non-deterministic languages. Constructions of SNARGs in the random oracle model are widely believed to be post-quantum secure, provided the oracle is instantiated with a suitable post-quantum hash function. No formal evidence, however, supports this belief. In this work we provide the first such evidence by proving that the SNARG construction of Micali is unconditionally secure in the *quantum* random oracle model. We also prove that, analogously to the classical case, the SNARG inherits the zero knowledge and proof of knowledge properties of the PCP underlying the Micali construction. We thus obtain the first zero knowledge SNARG of knowledge (zkSNARK) that is secure in the quantum random oracle model. Our main tool is a new lifting lemma that shows how, for a rich class of oracle games, we can *generically* deduce security against quantum attackers by bounding a natural classical property of these games. This means that in order to prove our theorem we only need to establish *classical* properties about the Micali construction. This approach not only lets us prove post-quantum security but also enables us to prove explicit bounds that are tight up to small factors. We additionally use our techniques to prove that SNARGs based on interactive oracle proofs (IOPs) with round-by-round soundness are unconditionally secure in the quantum random oracle model. This result establishes the post-quantum security of many SNARGs of practical interest.
Black-box accumulation (BBA) is a building block which enables a privacy-preserving implementation of point collection and redemption, a functionality required in a variety of user-centric applications including loyalty programs, incentive systems, and mobile payments. By definition, BBA+ schemes (Hartung et al. CCS '17) offer strong privacy and security guarantees, such as unlinkability of transactions and correctness of the balance flows of all (even malicious) users. Unfortunately, the instantiation of BBA+ presented at CCS '17 is, on modern smartphones, just fast enough for comfortable use. It is too slow for wearables, let alone smart-cards. Moreover, it lacks a crucial property: For the sake of efficiency, the user's balance is presented in the clear when points are deducted. This may allow to track owners by just observing revealed balances, even though privacy is otherwise guaranteed. The authors intentionally forgo the use of costly range proofs, which would remedy this problem. We present an instantiation of BBA+ with some extensions following a different technical approach which significantly improves efficiency. To this end, we get rid of pairing groups, rely on different zero-knowledge and fast range proofs, along with a slightly modified version of Baldimtsi-Lysyanskaya blind signatures (CCS '13). Our prototype implementation with range proofs (for 16-bit balances) outperforms BBA+ without range proofs by a factor of 2.5. Moreover, we give estimates showing that smart-card implementations are within reach.
In this paper, we propose a novel lattice-based group key exchange protocol with dynamic membership. Our protocol is constructed by generalizing Dutta-Barua protocol to RLWE setting, inspired by Apon et al.’s recent paper in PQCrypto 2019. We describe our (static) group key exchange protocol from Apon et al.’s paper by modifying its third round and computation step. Then, we present both authenticated and dynamic group key exchange protocol with Join and Leave algorithms. The number of rounds for authenticated group key exchange remains the same as unauthenticated one. Our protocol also supports the scalable property so that the number of rounds does not change depending on the number of group participants. By assuming the hardness of RLWE assumption and unforgeability of digital signatures, we give a full security proof for (un-)authenticated (dynamic) group key exchange protocols.
Many studies focus on the blockchain privacy protection. Unfortunately, the privacy protection brings regulatory issues (e.g., countering money-laundering). Tracing users' identities is a critical step in addressing blockchain regulatory issues. In this paper, we propose SkyEye, a traceable scheme for blockchain. SkyEye can be applied to the blockchain applications that satisfy the following conditions: (I) The users have public and private information, where the public information is generated by the private information; (II) The users' public information is disclosed in the blockchain data. SkyEye enables the regulator to trace users' identities. The design of SkyEye leverages some cryptographic primitives, including chameleon hash and zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (zk-SNARK). Moreover, we demonstrate the security of SkyEye under specific cryptographic assumptions. Finally, we implement two prototypes of SkyEye, and evaluate the running time and related data storage requirements by performing the aforementioned prototypes.
McCorry et al. (Financial Cryptography 2017) presented the first implementation of a decentralized self-tallying voting protocol on Ethereum. However, their implementation did not scale beyond 40 voters since all the computations were performed on the smart contract. In this paper, we tackle this problem by delegating the bulk computations to an off-chain untrusted administrator in a verifiable manner. Specifically, the administrator tallies the votes off-chain and publishes a Merkle tree that encodes the tallying computation trace. Then, the administrator submits the Merkle tree root and the tally result to the smart contract. Subsequently, the smart contract transits to an intermediate phase where at least a single honest voter can contend the administrator's claimed result if it was not computed correctly. Then, in the worst case, the smart contract verifies the dispute at the cost of an elliptic curve point addition and scalar multiplication, and two Merkle proofs of membership which are logarithmic in the number of voters. This allows our protocol to achieve higher scalability without sacrificing the public verifiability or voters' privacy. To assess our protocol, we implemented an open-source prototype on Ethereum and carried out multiple experiments for different numbers of voters. The results of our implementation confirm the scalability and efficiency of our proposed solution which does not exceed the current block gas limit for any practical number of voters.
In this paper, we propose a method for implementing binary matrices with low-cost XOR. First, using a random-iterative method, we obtain a list S from a binary matrix A. Then, based on the list S, we construct a binary matrix B. Next, we find a relation between the implementations of A and B. In other words, using the implementation of the matrix B, we get a low-cost implementation for the matrix A. Also, we show that the implementation of an MDS matrix M is associated with the form of the binary matrix used to construct the binary form of M. In addition, we propose a heuristics algorithm to implement MDS matrices. The best result of this paper is the implementation of a 8 × 8 involutory MDS matrix over 8-bit words with 408 XOR gates. The Paar algorithm is used as an SLP application to obtain implementations of this paper.
We initiate a study of locally decodable codes with randomized encoding. Standard locally decodable codes are error correcting codes with a deterministic encoding function and a randomized decoding function, such that any desired message bit can be recovered with good probability by querying only a small number of positions in the corrupted codeword. This allows one to recover any message bit very efficiently in sub-linear or even logarithmic time. Besides this straightforward application, locally decodable codes have also found many other applications such as private information retrieval, secure multiparty computation, and average-case complexity. However, despite extensive research, the tradeoff between the rate of the code and the number of queries is somewhat disappointing. For example, the best known constructions still need super-polynomially long codeword length even with a logarithmic number of queries, and need a polynomial number of queries to achieve a constant rate. In this paper, we show that by using a randomized encoding, in several models we can achieve significantly better rate-query tradeoff. In addition, our codes work for both the standard Hamming errors, and the more general and harder edit errors.
We present the design of a novel low latency, bit length parameterizable cipher, called the ``K-Cipher''. K-Cipher is particularly useful to applications that need to support ultra low latency encryption at arbitrary ciphertext lengths. We can think of a range of networking, gaming and computing applications that may require encrypting data at unusual block lengths for many different reasons, such as to make space for other unencrypted state values. Furthermore, in modern applications, encryption is typically required to complete inside stringent time frames in order not to affect performance. K-Cipher has been designed to meet these requirements. In the paper we present the K-Cipher design and discuss its rationale.
We consider a scenario where multiple organizations holding large amounts of sensitive data from their users wish to compute aggregate statistics on this data while protecting the privacy of individual users. To support large-scale analytics we investigate how this privacy can be provided for the case of sketching algorithms running in time sub-linear of the input size. We begin with the well-known LogLog sketch for computing the number of unique elements in a data stream. We show that this algorithm already achieves differential privacy (even without adding any noise) when computed using a private hash function by a trusted curator. Next, we show how to eliminate this requirement of a private hash function by injecting a small amount of noise, allowing us to instantiate an efficient LogLog protocol for the multi-party setting. To demonstrate the practicality of this approach, we run extensive experimentation on multiple datasets, including the publicly available IP address data set from University of Michigan’s scans of internet IPv4 space, to determine the tradeoffs among efficiency, privacy and accuracy of our implementation for varying numbers of parties and input sizes. Finally, we generalize our approach for the LogLog sketch and obtain a general framework for constructing multi-party differentially private protocols for several other sketching algorithms.
The majority of real-world applications of digital signatures use timestamping to ensure non-repudiation in face of possible key revocations. This observation led Buldas, Laanoja, and Truu to a server-assisted digital signature scheme built around cryptographic timestamping. In this paper, we report on the machine-checked proofs of existential unforgeability under the chosen-message attack (EUF-CMA) of some variations of BLT digital signature scheme. The proofs are developed and verified using the EasyCrypt framework, which provides interactive theorem proving supported by the state-of-the-art SMT solvers.
Authenticated encryption (AE) schemes are widely used to secure communications because they can guarantee both confidentiality and authenticity of a message. In addition to the standard AE security notion, some recent schemes offer extra robustness, i.e. they maintain security in some misuse scenarios. In particular, Ashur, Dunkelman and Luykx proposed a generic AE construction at CRYPTO'17 that is secure even when releasing unverified plaintext (the RUP setting), and a concrete instantiation, GCM-RUP. The designers proved that GCM-RUP is secure up to the birthday bound in the nonce-respecting model. In this paper, we perform a birthday-bound universal forgery attack against GCM-RUP, matching the bound of the proof. While there are simple distinguishing attacks with birthday complexity on GCM-RUP, our attack is much stronger: we have a partial key recovery leading to universal forgeries. For reference, the best known universal forgery attack against GCM requires $2^{2n/3}$ operations, and many schemes do not have any known universal forgery attacks faster than $2^n$. This suggests that GCM-RUP offers a different security trade-off than GCM: stronger protection in the RUP setting, but more fragile when the data complexity reaches the birthday bound. In order to avoid this attack, we suggest a minor modification of GCM-RUP that seems to offer better robustness at the birthday bound.
The rapid development of IT in the automotive industry has driven increasing requirements on incorporating security functionalities in the in-vehicle architecture, which is usually realized by adding a Hardware Secure Module (HSM) in the Electronic Central Unit (ECU). Therefore, secure communications can be enforced by carrying out secret cryptographic computations within the HSM by use of the embedded hardware accelerators. However, there is no common standard for designing the architecture for an HSM. A future design of a common automotive HSM is desired by the automotive industry which not only fits to the increasing performance demand, but also further defends against future attacks by attackers exploiting large-scale quantum computers. The arrival of future quantum computers motivates the investigation into post-quantum cryptography (PQC), which will retain the security of an HSM in the future. We analyzed the candidates in NIST’s PQC standardization process, and proposed new sets of hardware accelerators for the future generation of the automotive HSMs. Our evaluation results show that building a post-quantum secure automotive HSM is feasible and can meet the hard requirements imposed by a modern vehicle ECU.
We show how to construct structure-preserving signatures (SPS) and unbounded quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge (USS QA-NIZK) proofs with a tight security reduction to simple assumptions, being the first with a security loss of $\mathcal{O}(1)$. Specifically, we present a SPS scheme which is more efficient than existing tightly secure SPS schemes and from an efficiency point of view is even comparable with other non-tight SPS schemes. In contrast to existing work, however, we only have a lower security loss of $\mathcal{O}(1)$, resolving an open problem posed by Abe et al. (CRYPTO 2017). In particular, our tightly secure SPS scheme under the SXDH assumption requires 11 group elements. Moreover, we present the first tightly secure USS QA-NIZK proofs with a security loss of $\mathcal{O}(1)$ which also simultaneously have a compact common reference string and constant size proofs (5 elements under the SXDH assumption, which is only one element more than the best non-tight USS QA-NIZK). From a technical perspective, we present a novel randomization technique, inspired by Naor-Yung paradigm and adaptive partitioning, to obtain a randomized pseudorandom function (PRF). In particular, our PRF uses two copies under different keys but with shared randomness. Then we adopt ideas of Kiltz, Pan and Wee (CRYPTO 2015), who base their SPS on a randomized PRF, but in contrast to their non-tight reduction our approach allows us to achieve tight security. Similarly, we construct the first compact USS QA-NIZK proofs adopting techniques from Kiltz and Wee (EUROCRYPT 2015). We believe that the techniques introduced in this paper to obtain tight security with a loss of $\mathcal{O}(1)$ will have value beyond our proposed constructions.
We present a reduction from the module learning with errors problem (MLWE) in dimension \(d\) and with modulus \(q\) to the ring learning with errors problem (RLWE) with modulus \(q^{d}\). Our reduction increases the LWE error rate \(\alpha\) by a factor of \( n^{c+1/2} \cdot \sqrt{d} \) for ring dimension \(n\), module rank \(d\) and any constant \(c>0\) in the case of power-of-two cyclotomics. Since, on the other hand, MLWE is at least as hard as RLWE, we conclude that the two problems are polynomial-time equivalent. As a corollary, we obtain that the RLWE instance described above is equivalent to solving lattice problems on module lattices. We also present a self reduction for power-of-two cyclotomic RLWE that reduces the ring dimension \(n\) by a power-of-two factor \(2^i\), while increasing the modulus by a power of \(2^i\) and the error rate by a factor of \( 2^{i\cdot (1-c)} \cdot n^{c+1/2} \) for any constant \(c>0\). Our results suggest that when discussing hardness to drop the RLWE/MLWE distinction in favour of distinguishing problems by the module rank required to solve them.
In this paper we consider several methods for an efficient extraction of roots of a polynomial over large finite fields. The problem of computing such roots is often the performance bottleneck for some multivariate quantum-immune cryptosystems, such as HFEv-based Quartz, Gui, etc. We also discuss a number of techniques for fast computation of traces as part of the factorization process. These optimization methods could significantly improve the performance of cryptosystems where roots factorization is a part thereof.
Blockchain technology has immense potential. At the same time, it is not always possible to scale blockchains. State Channels solve the problem of scalability while increasing the blockchain's speed and efficiency. State Channels present a workaround to current blockchains' TPS (transaction per second) bottleneck. We used State Channels as a foundation and created Game Channels. We built it around the needs of the gambling market. We also developed Signidice PRNG as well as a dispute resolution mechanism. Signidice uses unique digital signatures and is also described below. The potential use of Game Channels technology is not only gambling; some types of online gaming may also be able to use it.
Fairness in Secure Multiparty Computation (MPC) is known to be impossible to achieve in the presence of a dishonest majority. Previous works have proposed combining MPC protocols with Cryptocurrencies in order to financially punish aborting adversaries, providing an incentive for parties to honestly follow the protocol. This approach also yields privacy-preserving Smart Contracts, where private inputs can be processed with MPC in order to determine the distribution of funds given to the contract. The focus of existing work is on proving that this approach is possible and unfortunately they present monolithic and mostly inefficient constructions. In this work, we put forth the first modular construction of ``Insured MPC'', where either the output of the private computation (which describes how to distribute funds) is fairly delivered or a proof that a set of parties has misbehaved is produced, allowing for financial punishments. Moreover, both the output and the proof of cheating are publicly verifiable, allowing third parties to independently validate an execution. We present a highly efficient compiler that uses any MPC protocol with certain properties together with a standard (non-private) Smart Contract and a publicly verifiable homomorphic commitment scheme to implement Insured MPC. As an intermediate step, we propose the first construction of a publicly verifiable homomorphic commitment scheme achieving composability guarantees and concrete efficiency. Our results are proven in the Global Universal Composability framework using a Global Random Oracle as the setup assumption. From a theoretical perspective, our general results provide the first characterization of sufficient properties that MPC protocols must achieve in order to be efficiently combined with Cryptocurrencies, as well as insights into publicly verifiable protocols. On the other hand, our constructions have highly efficient concrete instantiations, allowing for fast implementations.
In this short paper, we provide protocols to batch and aggregate multiple non-membership proofs into a single proof of constant size with bilinear accumulators. We subsequently use the accumulator to construct a bilinear Vector Commitment with constant sized openings and a linear public parameter. Furthermore, we have designed the protocols so that the Verifier needs a constant amount of storage for verification despite the linear public parameter. We also provide ways to speed up the verification of membership and non-membership proofs and to shift most of the computational burden from the Verifier to the Prover. Since all the protocols are public coin, they can be made non-interactive with a Fiat-Shamir heuristic.
Key custody is a sensitive aspect of cryptocurrencies. The employment of a custodian service together with threshold-multi-party signatures helps to manage secret keys more safely and effectively, e.g. allowing the recovery of crypto-assets when users lose their own keys. Advancing from a protocol by Gennaro et al. we propose a protocol with two main properties. First it allows the recovery party to remain offline during the enrollment of any user, solving a real-life problem of maintaining online only one trusted third party. Second our multi-party signature is compatible with a deterministic derivation of public and private keys.
This work introduces a new class of Algorithm Substitution Attack (ASA) on Symmetric Encryption Schemes. ASAs were introduced by Bellare, Paterson and Rogaway in light of revelations concerning mass surveillance. An ASA replaces an encryption scheme with a subverted version that aims to reveal information to an adversary engaged in mass surveillance, while remaining undetected by users. Previous work posited that a particular class of AEAD scheme (satisfying certain correctness and uniqueness properties) is resilient against subversion. Many if not all real-world constructions - such as GCM, CCM and OCB - are members of this class. Our results stand in opposition to those prior results. We present a potent ASA that generically applies to any AEAD scheme, is undetectable in all previous frameworks and which achieves successful exfiltration of user keys. We give even more efficient non-generic attacks against a selection of AEAD implementations that are most used in practice.In contrast to prior work, our new class of attack targets the decryption algorithm rather than encryption. We argue that this attack represents an attractive opportunity for a mass surveillance adversary. Our work serves to refine the ASA model and contributes to a series of papers that raises awareness and understanding about what is possible with ASAs.
In a Single Secret Leader Election (SSLE), a group of participants aim to randomly choose exactly one leader from the group with the restriction that the identity of the leader will be known to the chosen leader and nobody else. At a later time, the elected leader should be able to publicly reveal her identity and prove that she has won the election. The election process itself should work properly even if many registered users are passive and do not send any messages. Among the many applications of SSLEs, their potential for enabling more efficient proof-of-stake based cryptocurrencies have recently received increased attention. This paper formally defines SSLE schemes and presents three constructions that provide varying security and performance properties. First, as an existence argument, we show how to realize an ideal SSLE using indistinguishability obfuscation. Next, we show how to build SSLE from low-depth threshold fully homomorphic encryption (TFHE) via a construction which can be instantiated with a circuit of multiplicative depth as low as 10, for realistically-sized secret leader elections. Finally, we show a practical scheme relying on DDH that achieves a slightly relaxed notion of security but which boasts extremely lightweight computational requirements.
The Arwen Trading Protocols are layer-two blockchain protocols for traders to securely trade cryptocurrencies at a centralized exchange, without ceding custody of their coins to the exchange. Before trading begins, traders deposit their coins in an on-blockchain escrow where the agent of escrow is the blockchain itself. Each trade is backed by the coins locked in escrow. Each trade is fast, because it happens off-blockchain, and secure, because atomic swaps prevent even a hacked exchange from taking custody of a trader’s coins. Arwen is designed to work even with the "lowest common denominator" of blockchains—namely Bitcoin-derived coins without SegWit support. As a result, Arwen supports essentially all "Bitcoin-derived" coins e.g., BTC, LTC, BCH, ZEC, as well as Ethereum. Our protocols support Limit and RFQ order types, we implemented our RFQ protocol and are available for use at arwen.io.
Single Sign-On (SSO) is becoming an increasingly popular authentication method for users that leverages a trusted Identity Provider (IdP) to bootstrap secure authentication tokens from a single user password. It alleviates some of the worst security issues of passwords, as users no longer need to memorize individual passwords for all service providers, and it removes the burden of these service to properly protect huge password databases. However, SSO also introduces a single point of failure. If compromised, the IdP can impersonate all users and learn their master passwords. To remedy this risk while preserving the advantages of SSO, Agrawal et al. (CCS'18) recently proposed a distributed realization termed PASTA (password-authenticated threshold authentication) which splits the role of the IdP across $n$ servers. While PASTA is a great step forward and guarantees security as long as not all servers are corrupted, it uses a rather inflexible corruption model: servers cannot be corrupted adaptively and --- even worse --- cannot recover from corruption. The latter is known as proactive security and allows servers to re-share their keys, thereby rendering all previously compromised information useless. In this work, we improve upon the work of PASTA and propose a distributed SSO protocol with proactive and adaptive security (PESTO), guaranteeing security as long as not all servers are compromised at the same time. We prove our scheme secure in the UC framework which is known to provide the best security guarantees for password-based primitives. The core of our protocol are two new primitives we introduce: partially-oblivious distributed PRFs and a class of distributed signature schemes. Both allow for non-interactive refreshs of the secret key material and tolerate adaptive corruptions. We give secure instantiations based on the gap one-more BDH and RSA assumption respectively, leading to a highly efficient 2-round PESTO protocol. We also present an implementation and benchmark of our scheme in Java, realizing OAuth-compatible bearer tokens for SSO, demonstrating the viability of our approach.
NewHope Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) has been presented at USENIX 2016 by Alchim et al. and is one of the remaining lattice-based candidates to the post-quantum standardization initiated by the NIST. However, despite the relative simplicity of the protocol, the bound on the decapsulation failure probability resulting from the original analysis is not tight. In this work we refine this analysis to get a tight upper-bound on this probability which happens to be much lower than what was originally evaluated. As a consequence we propose a set of alternnative parameters, increasing the security and the compactness of the scheme. However using a smaller modulus prevent the use of a full NTT algorithm to perform multiplications of elements in dimension 512 or 1024. Nonetheless, similarly to previous works, we combine different multiplication algorithms and show that our new parameters are competitive on a constant time vectorized implementation. Our most compact parameters bring a speed- up of 17% (resp. 11%) in performance but allow to gain more than 19% over the bandwidth requirements and to increase the security of 10% (resp. 7%) in dimension 512 (resp. 1024).
This paper presents a novel, yet efficient secret-key authentication and MAC, which provide post-quantum security promise, whose security is reduced to the quantum-safe conjectured hardness of Mersenne Low Hamming Combination (MERS) assumption recently introduced by Aggarwal, Joux, Prakash, and Santha (CRYPTO 2018). Our protocols are very suitable to weak devices like smart card and RFID tags.
This document provides a self-contained, comprehensive, and fully-detailed specification of a new cryptographic voting protocol designed for political elections in Switzerland. The document describes every relevant aspect and every necessary technical detail of the computations and communications performed by the participants during the protocol execution. To support the general understanding of the cryptographic protocol, the document accommodates the necessary mathematical and cryptographic background information. By providing this information to the maximal possible extent, it serves as an ultimate companion document for the developers in charge of implementing this system. It may also serve as a manual for developers trying to implement an independent election verification software. The decision of making this document public even enables implementations by third parties, for example by students trying to develop a clone of the system for scientific evaluations or to implement protocol extensions to achieve additional security properties. In any case, the target audience of this document are system designers, software developers, and cryptographic experts.
We present two new Verifiable Delay Functions (VDF) based on assumptions from elliptic curve cryptography. We discuss both the advantages and some drawbacks of our constructions, we study their security and we demonstrate their practicality with a proof-of-concept implementation.
Linear cryptanalysis is an important evaluation method for cryptographic primitives against key recovery attack. In this paper, we revisit the Walsh transformation for linear correlation calculation of modular addition, and an efficient algorithm is proposed to construct the input-output mask space of specified correlation weight. By filtering out the impossible large correlation weights in the first round, the search space of the first round can be substantially reduced. We introduce a new construction of combinational linear approximation table (cLAT) for modular addition with two inputs. When one input mask is fixed, another input mask and the output mask can be obtained by the \textit{Spliting-Lookup-Recombination} approach. We first split the $n$-bit fixed input mask into several sub-vectors, then, to find the corresponding bits of other masks, and in the recombination phase, pruning conditions can be used. By this approach, a large number of search branches in the middle rounds can be pruned. With the combination of the optimization strategies and the branch-and-bound search algorithm, we can improve the search efficiency for linear characteristics on ARX ciphers. The linear hulls for SPECK32/48/64 with higher average linear potential ($ALP$) than existing results have been obtained. For SPARX variants, a 11-round linear trail and a 10-round linear hull have been found for SPARX-64, a 10-round linear trail and a 9-round linear hull are obtained for SPARX-128. For Chaskey, a 5-round linear trail with correlation of $2^{-61}$ have been obtained. For CHAM-64, the 34/35-round optimal linear characteristics with correlation of $2^{-31}$/$2^{-33}$ are found.
Motivated by the algorithm of differential probability calculation of Lipmaa and Moriai, we revisit the differential properties of modular addition. We propose an efficient approach to generate the input-output difference tuples with non-zero probabilities. A novel construction of combinational DDT, which makes it possible to obtain all valid output differences for fixed input differences. According to the upper bound of differential probability of modular addition, combining the optimization strategies with branch and bound search algorithm, we can reduce the search space of the first round and prune the invalid difference branches of the middle rounds. Applying this tool, the provable optimal differential trails covering more rounds for SPECK32/48/64 with tight probabilities can be found, and the differentials with larger probabilities are also obtained. In addition, the optimal differential trails cover more rounds than exisiting results for SPARX variants are obtained. A 12-round differential with a probability of $2^{-54.83}$ for SPARX-64, and a 11-round differential trail with a probability of $2^{-53}$ for SPARX-128 are found. For CHAM-64/128 and CHAM-128/*, the 39/63-round differential characteristics we find cover 3/18 rounds more than the known results respectively.
We introduce new authenticated key exchange protocols which on one hand do not resort to standard public key setups with corresponding assumptions of computationally hard problems, but on the other hand are more efficient than distributing symmetric keys among the participants. To this end, we rely on a trusted central authority distributing key material which size is independent of the total number of users, and which allows the users to obtain shared secret keys. We analyze the security of our construction taking into account various attack models. Importantly, only symmetric primitives are needed in the protocol making it an alternative to quantum-safe key exchange protocols which rely on hardness assumptions.
The SHA-1 hash function was designed in 1995 and has been widely used during two decades. A theoretical collision attack was first proposed in 2004 [WYY05], but due to its high complexity it was only implemented in practice in 2017, using a large GPU cluster [SBK+17]. More recently, an almost practical chosen-prefix collision attack against SHA-1 has been proposed [LP19]. This more powerful attack allows to build colliding messages with two arbitrary prefixes, which is much more threatening for real protocols. In this paper, we report the first practical implementation of this attack, and its impact on real-world security with a PGP/GnuPG impersonation attack. We managed to significantly reduce the complexity of collisions attack against SHA-1: on an Nvidia GTX 970, identical-prefix collisions can now be computed with a complexity of $2^{61.2}$ rather than $2^{64.7}$, and chosen-prefix collisions with a complexity of $2^{63.4}$ rather than $2^{67.1}$. When renting cheap GPUs, this translates to a cost of 11k US\$ for a collision, and 45k US\$ for a chosen-prefix collision, within the means of academic researchers. Our actual attack required two months of computations using 900 Nvidia GTX 1060 GPUs (we paid 75k US\$ because GPU prices were higher, and we wasted some time preparing the attack). Therefore, the same attacks that have been practical on MD5 since 2009 are now practical on SHA-1. In particular, chosen-prefix collisions can break signature schemes and handshake security in secure channel protocols (TLS, SSH). We strongly advise to remove SHA-1 from those type of applications as soon as possible. We exemplify our cryptanalysis by creating a pair of PGP/GnuPG keys with different identities, but colliding SHA-1 certificates. A SHA-1 certification of the first key can therefore be transferred to the second key, leading to a forgery. This proves that SHA-1 signatures now offers virtually no security in practice. The legacy branch of GnuPG still uses SHA-1 by default for identity certifications, but after notifying the authors, the modern branch now rejects SHA-1 signatures (the issue is tracked as CVE-2019-14855).
Dynamic and partial reconfiguration together with hardware parallelism make FPGAs attractive as virtualized accelerators. However, recently it has been shown that multi-tenant FPGAs are vulnerable to remote side-channel attacks (SCA) from malicious users, allowing them to extract secret keys without a logical connection to the victim core. Typical mitigations against such attacks are hiding and masking schemes, to increase attackers’ efforts in terms of side-channel measurements. However, they require significant efforts and tailoring for a specific algorithm, hardware implementation and mapping. In this paper, we show a hiding countermeasure against voltage-based SCA that can be integrated into any implementation, without requiring modifications or tailoring to the protected module. We place a properly mapped Active Fence of ring oscillators between victim and attacker circuit, enabled as a feedback of an FPGA-based sensor, leading to reduced side-channel leakage. Our experimental results based on a Lattice ECP5 FPGA and an AES-128 module show that two orders of magnitude more traces are needed for a successful key recovery, while no modifications to the underlying cryptographic module are necessary.
Elliptic curve cryptography requires efficient arithmetic over the underlying field. In particular, fast implementation of multiplication and squaring over the finite field is required for efficient projective coordinate based scalar multiplication as well as for inversion using Fermat’s little theorem. In the present work we consider the problem of obtaining efficient algorithms for field multiplication and squaring. From a theoretical point of view, we present a number of algorithms for multiplication/squaring and reduction which are appropriate for different settings. Our algorithms collect together and generalise ideas which are scattered across various papers and codes. At the same time, we also introduce new ideas to improve upon existing works. A key theoretical feature of our work, which is not present in previous works, is that we provide formal statements and detailed proofs of correctness of the different reduction algorithms that we describe. On the implementation aspect, a total of fourteen primes are considered, covering all previously proposed cryptographically relevant (pseudo-)Mersenne prime order fields at various security levels. For each of these fields, we provide 64-bit assembly implementations of the relevant multiplication and squaring algorithms targeted towards two different modern Intel architectures. We were able to find previous 64-bit implementations for six of the fourteen primes considered in this work. On the Haswell and Skylake processors of Intel, for all the six primes where previous implementations are available, our implementations outperform such previous implementations.
This document contains supplementary material to the paper with the same title available from the proceedings of the International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ICISC) 2019. In this supplementary material, we demonstrate that the random fault attack strategy described in the full paper can be applied to ciphers in the MORUS family, resulting in partial state recovery for these ciphers.
Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) advances the development of composable software middleboxes. Accordingly, cloud data centres become major NFV vendors for enterprise traffic processing. Due to the privacy concern of traffic redirection to the cloud, secure middlebox systems (e.g., BlindBox) draw much attention; they can process encrypted packets against encrypted rules directly. However, most of the existing systems supporting pattern matching based network functions require tokenisation of packet payloads via sliding windows at the enterprise gateway. Such tokenisation introduces a considerable communication overhead, which can be over 100× to the packet size. To overcome the above bottleneck, in this paper, we propose the first bandwidth-efficient encrypted pattern matching protocols for secure middleboxes. We start from a primitive called symmetric hidden vector encryption (SHVE), and propose a variant of it, aka SHVE+, to enable encrypted pattern matching with constant, moderate communication overhead. To speed up, we devise encrypted filters to further reduce the number of accesses to SHVE+ during matching. We formalise the security of our proposed protocols, and implement a prototype and conduct comprehensive evaluations over real-world rulesets and traffic dumps. The results show that our design can inspect a packet over 20k rules within 100 $\mu$s. Compared to prior work, it brings a saving of 94% in bandwidth consumption.
There have been several 51% attacks on Proof-of-Work (PoW) blockchains recently, including Verge and GameCredits, but the most noteworthy has been the attack that saw hackers make off with up to $18 million after a successful double spend was executed on the Bitcoin Gold network. For this reason, the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) algorithm, which already has advantages of energy efficiency and throughput, is attracting attention as an alternative to the PoW algorithm. With a PoS, the attacker needs to obtain 51% of the cryptocurrency to carry out a 51% attack. But unlike PoW, attacker in a PoS system is highly discouraged from launching 51% attack because he would have to risk losing his entire stake amount to do so. Moreover, even if a 51% attack succeeds, the value of PoS-based cryptocurrency will fall, and the attacker with the most stake will eventually lose the most. In this paper, we try to derive the results that go against these conventional myths. Despite of the significant depreciation of cryptocurrency, our method can make a profit from a 51% attack on the PoS blockchains using the traditional stock market's short selling (or shorting) concept. Our findings are an example to show that the conventional myth that "a destructive attack that destroys the blockchain ecosystem totally will not occur because it is fundamentally unprofitable to the attacker itself" may be wrong.
We introduce Biometric-Authenticated Keyword Search (BAKS), a novel searchable encryption scheme that relieves clients from managing cryptographic keys and relies purely on client’s biometric data for authenticated outsourcing and retrieval of files indexed by encrypted keywords. BAKS utilises distributed trust across two servers and the liveness assumption which models physical presence of the client; in particular, BAKS security is guaranteed even if clients’ biometric data, which often has low entropy, becomes public. We formalise two security properties, Authentication and Indistinguishability against Chosen Keyword Attacks, which ensure that only a client with a biometric input sufficiently close to the registered template is considered legitimate and that neither of the two servers involved can learn any information about the encrypted keywords. Our BAKS construction further supports outsourcing and retrieval of files using multiple keywords and flexible search queries (e.g., conjunction, disjunction and subset-type queries). An additional update mechanism allows clients to replace their registered biometrics without requiring re-encryption of outsourced keywords, which enables smooth user migration across devices supporting different types of biometrics.
Traditional group signatures feature a single issuer who can add users to the group of signers and a single opening authority who can reveal the identity of the group member who computed a signature. Interestingly, despite being designed for privacy-preserving applications, they require strong trust in these central authorities who constitute single points of failure for critical security properties. To reduce the trust placed on authorities, we introduce dynamic group signatures which distribute the role of issuer and opener over several entities, and support t_I-out-of-n_I issuance and t_O-out-of-n_O opening. We first define threshold dynamic group signatures and formalize their security. We then give an efficient construction relying on the pairing-based Pointcheval–Sanders (PS) signature scheme (CT-RSA 2018), which yields very short group signatures of two first-group elements and three exponents. We also give a simpler variant of our scheme in which issuance requires the participation of all n_I issuers, but still supports t_O-out-of-n_O opening. It is based on a new multi-signature variant of the PS scheme which allows for efficient proofs of knowledge and is a result of independent inter- est. We prove our schemes secure in the random-oracle model under a non-interactive q-type of assumption.
We design an efficient method for sampling a large batch of $d$ independent coins with a given bias $p \in [0,1]$. The folklore secure computation method for doing so requires $O(\lambda + \log d)$ communication and computation per coin to achieve total statistical difference $2^{-\lambda}$. We present an exponential improvement over the folklore method that uses just $O(\log(\lambda+\log d))$ gates per coin when sampling $d$ coins with total statistical difference $2^{-\lambda}$. We present a variant of our work that also concretely beats the folklore method for $\lambda \geq 60$ which are parameters that are often used in practice. Our new technique relies on using specially designed oblivious data structures to achieve biased coin samples that takean expected $2$ random bits to sample. Using our new sampling technique, we present an implementation of the differentially private report-noisy-max mechanism (a more practical implementation of the celebrated exponential mechanism) as a secure multi-party computation. Our benchmarks show that one can run this mechanism on a domain of size $d=2^{12}$ in 6 seconds and up to $d=2^{19}$ in 14 minutes. As far as we know, this is the first complete distributed implementation of either of these mechanisms.
With the increasing number of traffic accidents and terrorist attacks by modern vehicles, vehicular digital forensics (VDF) has gained significant attention in identifying and determining evidences from the related digital devices. Ensuring the law enforcement agency to accurately integrate various kinds of data is a crucial point to determine the facts. However, malicious attackers or semi-honest participants may undermine the digital forensic procedures. Enabling accountability and privacy preservation while providing secure fine-grained data access control in VDF is a non-trivial challenge. To mitigate this issue, in this paper, we propose a blockchain-based scheme for VDF named BB-VDF, in which the accountable protocols and privacy preservation methods are constructed. The desirable security properties and fine-grained data access control are achieved based on the customized smart contracts and cryptographic constructions. Specifically, we design novel smart contracts that model the forensics procedures as a finite state machine, which guarantees accountability that each participant performs auditable cooperation under tamper-resistant and traceable transactions. Furthermore, we design a distributed key-policy attribute based encryption scheme with partially hidden access structures to realize the secure fine-grained forensics data access control. Systematic security analysis and extensive experimental results show the feasibility and practicability of the proposed BB-VDF scheme.
It is well established that the method of choice for implementing a side-channel secure modular inversion, is to use Fermat's little theorem. So $1/x = x^{p-2} \bmod p$. This can be calculated using any multiply-and-square method safe in the knowledge that no branching or indexing with potentially secret data (such as $x$) will be required. However in the case where the modulus $p$ is a pseudo-Mersenne, or Mersenne, prime of the form $p=2^n-c$, where $c$ is small, this process can be optimized to greatly reduce the number of multiplications required. Unfortunately an optimal solution must it appears be tailored specifically depending on $n$ and $c$. What appears to be missing from the literature is a near-optimal heuristic method that works reasonably well in all cases.
We show new hardness results for the class of Polynomial Local Search problems ($\mathsf{PLS}$): * Hardness of $\mathsf{PLS}$ based on a falsifiable assumption on bilinear groups introduced by Kalai, Paneth, and Yang (STOC 2019), and the Exponential Time Hypothesis for randomized algorithms. Previous standard model constructions relied on non-falsifiable and non-standard assumptions. * Hardness of $\mathsf{PLS}$ relative to random oracles. The construction is essentially different than previous constructions, and in particular is unconditionally secure. The construction also demonstrates the hardness of parallelizing local search. The core observation behind the results is that the unique proofs property of incrementally-verifiable computations previously used to demonstrate hardness in $\mathsf{PLS}$ can be traded with a simple incremental completeness property.
This paper proposes various optimizations for lattice-based key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) using the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) on the popular ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller. Improvements come in the form of a faster code using more efficient modular reductions, small polynomial multiplications and more aggressive layer merging in the NTT but also reduced stack usage. We test those optimizations in software implementations of Kyber and NewHope, both round 2 candidates in the NIST post-quantum project and also NewHope-Compact, a recently proposed derivative of NewHope with smaller parameters. Our software is the first implementation of NewHope-Compact on Cortex-M4 and shows speed improvements over previous high-speed implementations on the same platform for Kyber and NewHope . Moreover, it gives a common framework to compare those algorithms with the same level of optimization. Our results show that NewHope-Compact is the faster algorithm, followed by Kyber and finally NewHope that seems to suffer from its large modulus and error distribution for small dimensions.
A verifiable delay function (VDF) is an important tool used for adding delay in decentralized applications. This short note briefly surveys and compares two recent beautiful Verifiable Delay Functions (VDFs), one due to Pietrzak and the other due to Wesolowski. We also provide a new computational proof of security for one of them, and compare the complexity assumptions needed for both schemes.
Indistinguishability obfuscation constructions based on matrix branching programs generally proceed in two steps: first apply Kilian's randomization of the matrix product computation, and then encode the matrices using a multilinear map scheme. In this paper we observe that by applying Kilian's randomization after encoding, the complexity of the best attacks is significantly increased for CLT13 multilinear maps. This implies that much smaller parameters can be used, which improves the efficiency of the constructions by several orders of magnitude. As an application, we describe the first concrete implementation of non-interactive Diffie-Hellman key exchange secure against existing attacks. Key exchange was originally the most straightforward application of multilinear maps; however it was quickly broken for the three known families of multilinear maps (GGH13, CLT13 and GGH15). Here we describe the first implementation of key exchange based on CLT13 that is resistant against the Cheon et al. attack. For N=4 users and a medium level of security, our implementation requires 18 GB of public parameters, and a few minutes for the derivation of a shared key.
FastSwap is a simple and concretely efficient contingent payment scheme for complex predicates, inspired by FairSwap. FastSwap only relies on symmetric primitives (in particular symmetric encryption and cryptographic hash functions) and avoids `heavy-weight' primitives such as general ZKP systems. FastSwap is particularly well-suited for applications where the witness or predicate is large (on the order of MBs / GBs) or expensive to calculate. Additionally FastSwap allows predicates to be implemented using virtually any computational model (including branching execution), which e.g. enables practitioners to express the predicate in smart contract languages already familiar to them, without an expensive transformation to satisfiability of arithmetic circuits. The cost of this efficiency during honest execution is a logarithmic number of rounds during a dispute resolution in the presence of a corrupted party (compared to constant round complexity for existing schemes). Let the witness be of size $|w|$ and the predicate of size $|P|$, where computing $P(w)$ takes $n$ steps. In the honest case the off-chain communication complexity is $|w| + |P| + c$ for a small constant $c$, the on-chain communication complexity is $c'$ for a small constant $c'$. In the malicious case the on-chain communication complexity is $O(\log n)$ with small constants. Concretely with suitable optimizations the number of rounds (on-chain transactions) for a computation of $2^{30}$ steps can be brought to $2$ in the honest case with an estimated cost of $\approx 2$ USD on the Ethereum blockchain and to $14$ rounds with an estimated cost of $\approx 4$ USD in case of a dispute.
Secure channel establishment protocols such as TLS are some of the most important cryptographic protocols, enabling the encryption of Internet traffic. Reducing the latency (the number of interactions between parties) in such protocols has become an important design goal to improve user experience. The most important protocols addressing this goal are TLS 1.3 over TCP Fast Open (TFO), Google’s QUIC over UDP, and QUIC[TLS] (a new design for QUIC that uses TLS 1.3 key exchange) over UDP. There have been a number of formal security analyses for TLS 1.3 and QUIC, but their security, when layered with their underlying transport protocols, cannot be easily compared. Our work is the first to thoroughly compare the security and availability properties of these protocols. Towards this goal, we develop novel security models that permit “layered” security analysis. In addition to the standard goals of server authentication and data privacy and integrity, we consider the goals of IP spoofing prevention, key exchange packet integrity, secure channel header integrity, and reset authentication, which capture a range of practical threats not usually taken into account by existing security models that focus mainly on the crypto cores of the protocols. Equipped with our new models we provide a detailed comparison of the above three protocols. We hope that our results will help protocol designers in their future protocol analyses and practitioners to better understand the advantages and limitations of novel secure channel establishment protocols.
We present EverCrypt: a comprehensive collection of verified, high-performance cryptographic functionalities available via a carefully designed API. The API provably supports agility (choosing between multiple algorithms for the same functionality) and multiplexing (choosing between multiple implementations of the same algorithm). Through abstraction and zero-cost generic programming, we show how agility can simplify verification without sacrificing performance, and we demonstrate how C and assembly can be composed and verified against shared specifications. We substantiate the effectiveness of these techniques with new verified implementations (including hashes, Curve25519, and AES-GCM) whose performance matches or exceeds the best unverified implementations. We validate the API design with two high-performance verified case studies built atop EverCrypt, resulting in line-rate performance for a secure network protocol and a Merkle-tree library, used in a production blockchain, that supports 2.7 million insertions/sec. Altogether, EverCrypt consists of over 124K verified lines of specs, code, and proofs, and it produces over 29K lines of C and 14K lines of assembly code.