Modern day smart phones are used for performing several sensitive operations, including online payments. Hence, the underlying cryptographic libraries are expected to adhere to proper security measures to ensure that there are no exploitable leakages. In particular, the implementations should be constant time to prevent subsequent timing based side channel analysis which can leak secret keys. Unfortunately, we unearth in this paper a glaring timing variation present in the Bouncy-Castle implementation of RSA like ciphers which is based on the BigInteger Java library to support large number theoretic computations. We follow up the investigation with a step-by-step procedure to exploit the timing variations to retrieve the complete secret of windowed RSA-2048 implementation. The entire analysis is possible with a single set of timing observation, implying that the timing observation can be done at the onset, followed by some post processing which does not need access to the phone. We have validated our analysis on Android Marshmallow 6.0, Nougat 7.0 and Oreo 8.0 versions. Interestingly, we note that for newer phones the timing measurement is more accurate leading to faster key retrievals.
In this paper we present several analyses on ChaCha, a software stream cipher. First, we consider a divide-and-conquer approach on the secret key bits by partitioning them. The partitions are based on multiple input-output differentials to obtain a significantly improved attack on 6-round ChaCha256 with a complexity of 2^{99.48}. It is 2^{40} times faster than the currently best known attack. Note that, this is the first time an attack could be mounted on reduced round ChaCha with a complexity significantly less than 2^{k}{2}, where the secret key is of $k$ bits. Further, we note that all the attack complexities related to ChaCha are theoretically estimated in general and there are several questions in this regard as pointed out by Dey et al. in Eurocrypt 2022. In this regard, we propose a toy version of ChaCha, with a 32-bit secret key, on which the attacks can be implemented completely to verify whether the theoretical estimates are justified. This idea is implemented for our proposed attack on 6 rounds. Finally, we show that it is possible to estimate the success probabilities of these kinds of PNB-based differential attacks more accurately. Our methodology explains how different cryptanalytic results can be evaluated with better accuracy rather than claiming (Aumasson et al., 2008) that the success probability is significantly better than 50%.
This paper proposes Prism, Private Verifiable Set Computation over Multi-Owner Outsourced Databases, a secret sharing based approach to compute private set operations (i.e., intersection and union), as well as aggregates over outsourced databases belonging to multiple owners. Prism enables data owners to pre-load the data onto non-colluding servers and exploits the additive and multiplicative properties of secret-shares to compute the above-listed operations in (at most) two rounds of communication between the servers (storing the secret-shares) and the querier, resulting in a very efficient implementation. Also, Prism does not require communication among the servers and supports result verification techniques for each operation to detect malicious adversaries. Experimental results show that Prism scales both in terms of the number of data owners and database sizes, to which prior approaches do not scale.
Proposed by Thang and Binh (NICS, 2015 ), DBTRU is a variant of NTRU, where the integer polynomial ring is replaced by two binary truncated polynomial rings GF(2)[x]/(x^n + 1). DBTRU has significant advantages over NTRU in terms of security and performance. NTRU is a probabilistic public key cryptosystem having security related to some hard problems in lattices. In this paper we will present a polynomial-time linear algebra attack on the DBTRU cryptosystem which can break DBTRU for all recommended parameter choices and the plaintext can be obtained in less than one second using a single PC and this specific attack.
In the current context of the increasing need for data privacy and quantum computing no longer being just a novel concept, Fully Homomorphic Encryption presents us with numerous quantum-secure schemes which have the concept of enabling data processing over encrypted data while not decrypting it behind. While not entirely usable at the present time, recent research has underlined its practical uses applied to databases, cloud computing, machine learning, e-voting, and IoT computing. In this paper, we are covering the current status of research and presenting the leading implemented solutions for subjects related to data privacy in the before-mentioned areas while emphasizing their positive results and possible drawbacks subsequently discovered by the research community.
The modern Internet is built on systems that incentivize collection of information about users. In order to minimize privacy loss, it is desirable to prevent these systems from collecting more information than is required for the application. The promise of multi-party computation is that data can be aggregated without revealing individual measurements to the data collector. This work offers a provable security treatment for "Verifiable Distributed Aggregation Functions (VDAFs)", a class of multi-party computation protocols being considered for standardization by the IETF. We propose a formal framework for the analysis of VDAFs and apply it to two candidate protocols. The first is based on the Prio system of Corrigan-Gibbs and Boneh (NSDI 2017). Prio is fairly mature and has been deployed in real-world applications. We prove that, with only minor changes, the current draft of the standardized version achieves our security goals. The second candidate is the recently proposed Poplar system from Boneh et al. (IEEE S&P 2021). The deployability of Poplar is less certain. One difficulty is that the interactive step requires two rounds of broadcast messages, whereas Prio requires just one. This makes Poplar less suitable for many deployment scenarios. We show the round complexity can be improved, at the cost of higher bandwidth.
Secret sharing schemes allow sharing a secret between a set of parties in a way that ensures that only authorized subsets of the parties learn the secret. Evolving secret sharing schemes (Komargodski, Naor, and Yogev [TCC ’16]) allow achieving this end in a scenario where the parties arrive in an online fashion, and there is no a-priory bound on the number of parties. An important complexity measure of a secret sharing scheme is the share size, which is the maximum number of bits that a party may receive as a share. While there has been a significant progress in recent years, the best constructions for both secret sharing and evolving secret sharing schemes have a share size that is exponential in the number of parties. On the other hand, the best lower bound, by Csirmaz [Eurocrypt ’95], is sub-linear. In this work, we give a tight lower bound on the share size of evolving secret sharing schemes. Specifically, we show that the sub-linear lower bound of Csirmaz implies an exponential lower bound on evolving secret sharing.
The powerful no-cloning principle of quantum mechanics can be leveraged to achieve interesting primitives, referred to as unclonable primitives, that are impossible to achieve classically. In the past few years, we have witnessed a surge of new unclonable primitives. While prior works have mainly focused on establishing feasibility results, another equally important direction, that of understanding the relationship between different unclonable primitives is still in its nascent stages. Moving forward, we need a more systematic study of unclonable primitives. To this end, we introduce a new framework called cloning games. This framework captures many fundamental unclonable primitives such as quantum money, copy-protection, unclonable encryption, single-decryptor encryption, and many more. By reasoning about different types of cloning games, we obtain many interesting implications to unclonable cryptography, including the following: 1. We obtain the first construction of information-theoretically secure single-decryptor encryption in the one-time setting. 2. We construct unclonable encryption in the quantum random oracle model based on BB84 states, improving upon the previous work, which used coset states. Our work also provides a simpler security proof for the previous work. 3. We construct copy-protection for single-bit point functions in the quantum random oracle model based on BB84 states, improving upon the previous work, which used coset states, and additionally, providing a simpler proof. 4. We establish a relationship between different challenge distributions of copy-protection schemes and single-decryptor encryption schemes. 5. Finally, we present a new construction of one-time encryption with certified deletion.
Secure communication is gained by combining encryption with authentication. In real-world applications encryption commonly takes the form of KEM-DEM hybrid encryption, which is combined with ideal authentication. The pivotal question is how weak the employed key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) is allowed to be to still yield universally composable (UC) secure communication when paired with symmetric encryption and ideal authentication. This question has so far been addressed for public-key encryption (PKE) only, showing that encryption does not need to be stronger than sender-binding CPA, which binds the CPA secure ciphertext non-malleably to the sender ID. For hybrid encryption, prior research unanimously reaches for CCA2 secure encryption which is unnecessarily strong. Answering this research question is vital to develop more efficient and feasible protocols for real-world secure communication and thus enable more communication to be conducted securely. In this paper we use ideas from the PKE setting to develop new answers for hybrid encryption. We develop a new and significantly weaker security notion—sender-binding CPA for KEMs—which is still strong enough for secure communication. By using game-based notions as building blocks, we attain secure communication in the form of ideal functionalities with proofs in the UC-framework. Secure communication is reached in both the classic as well as session context by adding authentication and one-time/replayable CCA secure symmetric encryption respectively. We furthermore provide an efficient post-quantum secure LWE-based construction in the standard model giving an indication of the real-world benefit resulting from our new security notion. Overall we manage to make significant progress on discovering the minimal security requirements for hybrid encryption components to facilitate secure communication.
In permissioned digital currencies such as Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs), data disclosure is essential for gathering aggregated statistics about the transactions and activities of the users. These statistics are later used to set regulations. Differential privacy techniques have been proposed to preserve individuals’ privacy while still making aggregative statistical analysis possible. Recently, privacy-preserving payment systems fit for CBDCs have been proposed. While preserving the privacy of the sender and recipient, they also prevent any insightful learning from their data. Thus, they are ill-qualified to be incorporated with a system that mandates publishing statistical data. We show that differential privacy and privacy-preserving payments can coexist even if one of the participating parties (i.e., the user or the data analyst) is malicious. We propose a modular scheme that incorporates verifiable local differential privacy techniques into a privacy-preserving payment system. Thus, although the noise is added directly by the user (i.e., the data subject), we prevent her from manipulating her response and enforce the integrity of the noise generation via a novel protocol.
This article presents and explains methodologies that can be employed to recover information from encrypted files generated by ransomware based on cryptanalytic techniques. By using cryptanalysis and related knowledge as much as possible, the methodology's goal is to use static and dynamic analysis as little as possible. We present three case studies that illustrate different approaches that can be used to recover the encrypted data.
Since the proposal of Bitcoin in 2008, the world has seen accelerated growth in the field of blockchain and discovered its potential to immensely transform most industries, one of the first and most important being finance. The blockchain trilemma states that blockchains can have security, scalability, and decentralization, but never all three at the same time, in the same amount. At the moment, the most successful blockchains have a lack of scalability that researchers and developers try to alleviate by solutions like layer 2s. Most of these solutions rely on cryptographic primitives and technologies, like collision-free hash function or zero-knowledge proofs. In this paper we explore a few of the most popular solutions available now, their improvements to scalability, their drawbacks and security risks.
Back in the 90s when the notion of malware first appeared, it was clear that the behaviour and purpose of such software should be closely analysed, such that systems all over the world should be patched, secured and ready to prevent other malicious activities to be happening in the future. Thus, malware analysis was born. In recent years, the rise of malware of all types, for example trojan, ransowmare, adware, spyware and so on, implies that deeper understanding of operating systems, attention to the details and perseverance are just some of the traits any malware analyst should have in their bag. With Windows being the worldwide go-to operating system, Windows' executable files represent the perfect way in which malware can be disguised to later be loaded and produce damage. In this paper we highlight how ciphers like Vigen\`ere cipher or Caesar cipher can be extended to more complex classes, such that, when later broken, ways of decrypting malware payloads, that are disguised in Windows executable files, are found. Alongside the theoretical information present in this paper, based on a dataset provided by our team at Bitdefender, we describe our implementation on how the key to decryption of such payloads can be found, what techniques are present in our approach, how optimization can be done, what are the pitfalls of this implementation and, lastly, open a discussion on how to tackle these pitfalls.
Financial applications have historically required strong security guarantees. These can be achieved in a digital world via cryptographic tools but have traditionally been employed to provide authenticity and privacy for data exchanged between clients and financial institutions over insecure networks (e.g. the Internet). However, the recent advent of cryptocurrencies and smart contract platforms, based on blockchains, allowed financial transactions to be carried out over a public ledger, instead of keeping such transactions exclusive to private institutions. This introduced a new challenge: Allowing any third party to verify the validity of financial operations by means of public records on a blockchain, while keeping sensitive data private. Advanced cryptographic techniques such as Zero Knowledge (ZK) proofs rose to prominence as a solution to this challenge, allowing for the owner of sensitive information (e.g. the identities of users involved in an operation) to provide unforgeable evidence that a certain operation has been correctly executed without revealing said sensitive data. Moreover, once the Fintech community discovered the power of such advanced techniques, it also became clear that performing arbitrary computation on private data by means of secure Multiparty Computation (MPC), and related techniques like Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), would allow more powerful financial applications, also in traditional finance, involving sensitive data from multiple sources. In this survey, we present an overview of the main Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (PETs) available in the state of the art of current advanced cryptographic research and how they can be used to address challenges in both traditional and decentralized finance. In particular, we consider the following classes of applications: 1. Identity Management, KYC & AML; 2. Legal; 3. Digital Asset Custody; and 4. Markets & Settlement. We examine how ZK proofs, MPC and related PETs have been used to tackle challenges in each of these applications. Finally, we propose future applications of PETs as Fintech solutions to currently unsolved issues. While we present a broad overview, we focus mainly on those applications that require privacy preserving computation on data from multiple parties.
The current article provides a new deterministic hash function $\mathcal{H}$ to almost any elliptic curve $E$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$, having an $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$-isogeny of degree $3$. Since $\mathcal{H}$ just has to compute a certain Lucas sequence element, its complexity always equals $O(\log(q))$ operations in $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ with a small constant hidden in $O$. In comparison, whenever $q \equiv 1 \ (\mathrm{mod} \ 3)$, almost all previous hash functions need to extract at least one square root in $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$. Over the field $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ of $2$-adicity $\nu$ this amounts to $O(\log(q) + \nu^2)$ operations in $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ for the Tonelli--Shanks algorithm and $O(\log(q) + \nu^{3/2})$ ones for the recent Sarkar algorithm. A detailed analysis shows that $\mathcal{H}$ is several times faster than earlier state-of-the-art hash functions to the curve NIST P-224 (for which $\nu = 96$) from the American standard NIST SP 800-186.
Homomorphic encryption (HE) allows for computations on encrypted data without requiring decryption. HE is commonly applied to outsource computation on private data. Due to the additional risks caused by data outsourcing, the ability to recover from losses is essential, but doing so on data encrypted under an HE scheme introduces additional challenges for recovery and usability. This work introduces X-Cipher, which aims to make HE data resilient by ensuring it is private and fault-tolerant simultaneously at all stages during data-outsourcing. X-Cipher allows for data recovery without decryption, and maintains its ability to recover and keep data private when a cluster server has been compromised. X-Cipher allows for reduced ciphertext storage overhead by introducing novel encoding and leveraging previously introduced ciphertext packing. X-Cipher's capabilities were evaluated on synthetic dataset, and compared to prior work to demonstrate X-Cipher enables additional security capabilities while enabling privacy-preserving outsourced computations.
In this work, we will give new attacks on the pseudorandomness of algebraic pseudorandom number generators (PRGs) of polynomial stretch. Our algorithms apply to a broad class of PRGs and are in the case of general local PRGs faster than currently known attacks. At the same time, in contrast to most algebraic attacks, subexponential time and space bounds will be proven for our attacks without making any assumptions of the PRGs or assuming any further conjectures. Therefore, we yield in this text the first subexponential distinguishing attacks on PRGs from constant-degree polynomials and close current gaps in the subexponential cryptoanalysis of lightweight PRGs. Concretely, against PRGs $F : \mathbb{Z}_q^{n} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}_q^{m}$ that are computed by polynomials of degree $d$ over a field $\mathbb{Z}_q$ and have a stretch of $m = n^{1+e}$ we give an attack with space and time complexities $n^{O(n^{1 - \frac{e}{d-1}})}$ and noticeable advantage $1 - {O(n^{1 - \frac{e}{d-1}}/{q})}$, if $q$ is large. If $F$ is of constant locality $d$ and $q$ is constant, we construct a second attack that has a space and time complexity of $n^{O(\log(n)^{\frac{1}{(q-1)d-1}} \cdot n^{1 - \frac{e}{(q-1)d-1}})}$ and noticeable advantage $1-O((\log(n)/n^e)^{\frac{1}{(q-1)d-1}})$.
The lightweight block ciphers ULC and LICID are introduced by Sliman et al. (2021) and Omrani et al. (2019) respectively. These ciphers are based on substitution permutation network structure. ULC is designed using the ULM method to increase efficiency, memory usage, and security. On the other hand, LICID is specifically designed for image data. In the ULC paper, the authors have given a full-round differential characteristic with a probability of $2^{-80}$. In the LICID paper, the authors have presented an 8-round differential characteristic with a probability of $2^{-112.66}$. In this paper, we present the 15-round ULC and the 14-round LICID differential characteristics of probabilities $2^{-45}$ and $2^{-40}$ respectively using the MILP model.
The interest shown by central banks in deploying Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) has spurred a blooming number of conceptually different proposals from central banks and academia. Yet, they share the common, transversal goal of providing citizens with an additional digital monetary instrument. Citizens, equipped with CBDC wallets, should have access to CBDC fund and defund operations that allow the distribution of CBDC from the central bank to citizens with the intermediation of commercial banks. Despite their key role in the CBDC deployment as acknowledged, e.g., by the European Central Bank, operations fund and defund have not been formally studied yet. In this state of affairs, this work strives to cryptographically define the problem of fund and defund of CBDC wallets as well as the security and privacy notions of interest. We consider a setting with three parties (citizen, commercial bank and central bank) and three ledgers: the CBDC ledger, the retail ledger (where citizens have their accounts with their commercial banks) and the wholesale ledger (where commercial banks have their accounts with the central bank). We follow a modular approach, initially defining the functionality of two types of ledgers: Basic Ledger (BL), which supports basic transactions, and Conditional Payment Ledger(CP), which additionally supports conditional transactions. We then use BL and CP to define the CBDC-Cash Environment (CCE) primitive, which captures the core functionality of operations fund and defund. We require that CCE satisfies balance security: either operation fund/defund is successful, or no honest party loses their funds. CCE also satisfies that fund/defund cannot be used to breach the privacy of the CBDC ledger. Finally, we provide two efficient and secure constructions for CCE to cover both CP and BL types of CBDC ledger. Our performance evaluation shows that our constructions impose small computation and communication overhead to the underlying ledgers. The modular design of CCE allows for the incorporation in our CCE constructions of any CBDC ledger proposal that can be proven a secure instance of CP or BL, enabling thereby a seamless method to provide CBDC fund and defund operations.
One of the main security challenges white-box cryptography needs to address is side-channel security. To this end, designers aim to eliminate the dependence between variables and sensitive data. Classical countermeasures to do so are masking schemes. Nevertheless, most masking schemes are not designed to thwart the other main security threat : fault attacks. Thus, we aimed to build a masking scheme that could combine resistance to both of these types of attacks. In this paper, we present our new generic fault resistant masking scheme using BCH error-correcting codes, as well as the design choices behind it.
We introduce CorrGapCDH, the Gap Computational Diffie-Hellman problem in the multi-user setting with Corruptions. In the random oracle model, our assumption tightly implies the security of the authenticated key exchange protocols NAXOS in the eCK model and (a simplified version of) X3DH without ephemeral key reveal. We prove hardness of CorrGapCDH in the generic group model, with optimal bounds matching the one of the discrete logarithm problem. We also introduce CorrCRGapCDH, a stronger Challenge-Response variant of our assumption. Unlike standard GapCDH, CorrCRGapCDH implies the security of the popular AKE protocol HMQV in the eCK model, tightly and without rewinding. Again, we prove hardness of CorrCRGapCDH in the generic group model, with (almost) optimal bounds. Our new results allow implementations of NAXOS, X3DH, and HMQV without having to adapt the group sizes to account for the tightness loss of previous reductions. As a side result of independent interest, we also obtain modular and simple security proofs from standard GapCDH with tightness loss, improving previously known bounds.
Akbarpour and Li (2020) formalized credibility as an auction desideratum where the auctioneer cannot benefit by implementing undetectable deviations from the promised auction and showed that, in the plain model, the ascending price auction with reserves is the only credible, strategyproof, revenue-optimal auction. Ferreira and Weinberg (2020) proposed the Deferred Revelation Auction (DRA) as a communication efficient auction that avoids the uniqueness results from (2020) assuming the existence of cryptographic commitments and as long as bidder valuations are MHR. They also showed DRA is not credible in settings where bidder valuations are $\alpha$-strongly regular unless $\alpha$ > 1. In this paper, we ask if blockchains allow us to design a larger class of credible auctions. We answer this question positively, by showing that DRA is credible even for $\alpha$-strongly regular distributions for all $\alpha$ > 0 if implemented over a secure and censorship-resistant blockchain. We argue ledgers provide two properties that limit deviations from a self-interested auctioneer. First, the existence of smart contracts allows one to extend the concept of credibility to settings where the auctioneer does not have a reputation — one of the main limitations for the definition of credibility from Akbarpour and Li (2020). Second, blockchains allow us to implement mechanisms over a public broadcast channel, removing the adaptive undetectable deviations driving the negative results of Ferreira and Weinberg (2020).
In a single secret leader election protocol (SSLE), one of the system participants is chosen and, unless it decides to reveal itself, no other participant can identify it. SSLE has a great potential in protecting blockchain consensus protocols against denial of service (DoS) attacks. However, all existing solutions either make strong synchrony assumptions or have expiring registration, meaning that they require elected processes to re-register themselves before they can be re-elected again. This, in turn, prohibits the use of these SSLE protocols to elect leaders in partially-synchronous consensus protocols as there may be long periods of network instability when no new blocks are decided and, thus, no new registrations (or re-registrations) are possible. In this paper, we propose Homomorphic Sortition -- the first asynchronous SSLE protocol with non-expiring registration, making it the first solution compatible with partially-synchronous leader-based consensus protocols. Homomorphic Sortition relies on Threshold Fully Homomorphic Encryption (ThFHE) and is tailored to proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchains, with several important optimizations with respect to prior proposals. In particular, unlike most existing SSLE protocols, it works with arbitrary stake distributions and does not require a user with multiple coins to be registered multiple times. Our protocol is highly parallelizable and can be run completely off-chain after setup. Some blockchains require a sequence of rounds to have non-repeating leaders. We define a generalization of SSLE, called Secret Leader Permutation (SLP) in which the application can choose how many non-repeating leaders should be output in a sequence of rounds and we show how Homomorphic Sortition also solves this problem.
Amortized bootstrapping offers a way to simultaneously refresh many ciphertexts of a fully homomorphic encryption scheme, at a total cost comparable to that of refreshing a single ciphertext. An amortization method for FHEW-style cryptosystems was first proposed by (Micciancio and Sorrell, ICALP 2018), who showed that the amortized cost of bootstrapping n FHEW-style ciphertexts can be reduced from $O(n)$ basic cryptographic operations to just $O(n^{\epsilon})$, for any constant $\epsilon>0$. However, despite the promising asymptotic saving, the algorithm was rather inpractical due to a large constant (exponential in $1/\epsilon$) hidden in the asymptotic notation. In this work, we propose an alternative amortized boostrapping method with much smaller overhead, still achieving $O(n^\epsilon)$ asymptotic amortized cost, but with a hidden constant that is only linear in $1/\epsilon$, and with reduced noise growth. This is achieved following the general strategy of (Micciancio and Sorrell), but replacing their use of the Nussbaumer transform, with a much more practical Number Theoretic Transform, with multiplication by twiddle factors implemented using ring automorphisms. A key technical ingredient to do this is a new "scheme switching" technique proposed in this paper which may be of independent interest.
A few small-state stream ciphers (SSCs) were proposed for constrained environments. All of the SSCs before the LILLE stream cipher suffered from distinguishing attacks and fast correlation attacks. The designers of LILLE claimed that it is based on the well-studied two-key Even-Mansour scheme and so is resistant to various types of attacks. This paper proposes a distinguishing attack on LILLE, the first attack since 2018. The data and time complexities to attack LILLE-40 are 2^(50.7) and 2^(41.2), respectively. We verified practically our attack on a halved version of LILLE-40. A countermeasure is suggested to strengthen LILLE against the proposed attack. We hope our attack opens the door to more cryptanalyses of LILLE.
In this paper, we propose a variable-sized, one-way, and randomized secure hash algorithm, VORSHA for short. We present six variants of VORSHA, which are able to generate a randomized secure hash value. VORSHA is the first secure hash algorithm to randomize the secure hash value fully. The key embodiment of our proposed algorithm is to generate a pool of pseudo-random bits using the primary hash functions and selects a few bits from the pool of bits to form the final randomized secure hash value. Each hash value of the primary hash function produces a single bit (either 0 or 1) for the pool of pseudo-random bits. Thus, VORSHA randomized the generated bit string to produce the secure hash value, and we term it as a randomized secure hash value. Moreover, the randomized secure hash value is tested using NIST-SP 800-22 statistical test suite, and the generated randomized secure hash value of VORSHA has passed all 15 statistical tests of NIST-SP 800-22. It proves that the VORSHA is able to generate a highly unpredictable yet consistent secure hash value. Moreover, VORSHA features a memory-hardness property to restrict a high degree of parallelism, which features a tiny memory footprint for legal users but massive memory requirements for adversaries. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to prevent Rainbow Table as a Service (RTaaS) attack using VORSHA. The source code is available at https://github.com/patgiri/VORSHA.
Automatic methods for differential and linear characteristic search are well-established at the moment. Typically, the designers of novel ciphers also give preliminary analytical findings for analysing the differential and linear properties using automatic techniques. However, neither MILP-based nor SAT/SMT-based approaches have fully resolved the problem of searching for actual differential and linear characteristics of ciphers with large S-boxes. To tackle the issue, we present three strategies for developing SAT models for 8-bit S-boxes that are geared toward differential probabilities and linear correlations. While these approaches cannot guarantee a minimum model size, the time needed to obtain models is drastically reduced. The newly proposed SAT model for large S-boxes enables us to establish that the upper bound on the differential probability for 14 rounds of SKINNY-128 is 2^{-131}, thereby completing the unsuccessful work of Abdelkhalek et al. We also analyse the seven AES-based constructions C1 - C7 designed by Jean and Nikolic and compute the minimum number of active S-boxes necessary to cause an internal collision using the SAT method. For two constructions C3 and C5, the current lower bound on the number of active S-boxes is increased, resulting in a more precise security analysis for these two structures.
We introduce Grotto, a framework and C++ library for space- and time-efficient $(2+1)$-party piecewise polynomial (i.e., spline) evaluation on secrets additively shared over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{n}}$. Grotto improves on the state-of-the-art approaches based on distributed comparison functions (DCFs) in almost every metric, offering asymptotically superior communication and computation costs with the same or lower round complexity. At the heart of Grotto is a novel observation about the structure of the ``tree'' representation underlying the most efficient distributed point functions (DPFs) from the literature, alongside an efficient algorithm that leverages this structure to do with a single DPF what state-of-the-art approaches require many DCFs to do. Our open-source Grotto implementation supports evaluating dozens of useful functions out of the box, including trigonometric and hyperbolic functions (and their inverses); various logarithms; roots, reciprocals, and reciprocal roots; sign testing and bit counting; and over two dozen of the most common (univariate) activation functions from the deep-learning literature.
This paper specifies a new arithmetization-oriented hash function called Tip5. It uses the SHARK design strategy with low-degree power maps in combination with lookup tables, and is tailored to the field with $p=2^{64}-2^{32}+1$ elements. The context motivating this design is the recursive verification of STARKs. This context imposes particular design constraints, and therefore the hash function's arithmetization is discussed at length.
Constructing a supersingular elliptic curve whose endomorphism ring is isomorphic to a given quaternion maximal order (one direction of the Deuring correspondence) is known to be polynomial-time assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis [KLPT14; Wes21], but notoriously daunting in practice when not working over carefully selected base fields. In this work, we speed up the computation of the Deuring correspondence in general characteristic, i.e., without assuming any special form of the characteristic. Our algorithm follows the same overall strategy as earlier works, but we add simple (yet effective) optimizations to multiple subroutines to significantly improve the practical performance of the method. To demonstrate the impact of our improvements, we show that our implementation achieves highly practical running times even for examples of cryptographic size. One implication of these findings is that cryptographic security reductions based on KLPT-derived algorithms (such as [EHLMP18; Wes22]) have become tighter, and therefore more meaningful in practice. Another is the pure bliss of fast(er) computer algebra: We provide a Sage implementation which works for general primes and includes many necessary tools for computational number theorists' and cryptographers' needs when working with endomorphism rings of supersingular elliptic curves. This includes the KLPT algorithm, translation of ideals to isogenies, and finding supersingular elliptic curves with known endomorphism ring for general primes. Finally, the Deuring correspondence has recently received increased interest because of its role in the SQISign signature scheme [DeF+20]. We provide a short and self-contained summary of the state-of-the-art algorithms without going into any of the cryptographic intricacies of SQISign.
Streamlined NTRU Prime is a lattice-based Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) that is, together with X25519, currently the default algorithm in OpenSSH 9. Being based on lattice assumptions, it is assumed to be secure also against attackers with access to large-scale quantum computers. While Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) schemes have been subject to extensive research in the recent years, challenges remain with respect to protection mechanisms against attackers that have additional side-channel information such as the power consumption of a device processing secret data. As a countermeasure to such attacks, masking has been shown to be a promising and effective approach. For public-key schemes, including any recent PQC schemes, usually a mixture of Boolean and arithmetic approaches are applied on an algorithmic level. Our generic hardware implementation of Streamlined NTRU Prime decapsulation, however, follows an idea that until now was assumed to be only applicable to symmetric cryptography: gate-level masking. There, a hardware design that consists of logic gates is transformed into a secure implementation by replacing each gate with a composably secure gadget that operates on uniform random shares of secret values. In our work, we show the feasibility of applying this approach also to PQC schemes and present the first Public-Key Cryptography (PKC) – pre- and post-quantum – implementation masked at gate level considering several trade-offs and design choices. We synthesize our implementation both for Artix-7 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and 45 nm Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), yielding practically feasible results regarding area, randomness demand and latency. Finally, we also analyze the applicability of our concept to Kyber which will be standardized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
In this work, we investigate the BGV scheme as implemented in HElib. We begin by performing an implementation-specific noise analysis of BGV. This allows us to derive much tighter bounds than what was previously done. To confirm this, we compare our bounds against the state of the art. We find that, while our bounds are at most $1.8$ bits off the experimentally observed values, they are as much as $29$ bits tighter than previous work. Finally, to illustrate the importance of our results, we propose new and optimised parameters for HElib. In HElib, the special modulus is chosen to be $k$ times larger than the current ciphertext modulus $Q_i$. For a ratio of subsequent ciphertext moduli $\log\left( \frac{Q_i}{Qi−1}\right) = 54$ (a very common choice in HElib), we can optimise $k$ by up to $26$ bits. This means that we can either enable more multiplications without having to switch to larger parameters, or reduce the size of the evaluation keys, thus reducing on communication costs in relevant applications. We argue that our results are near-optimal.
Thesecurityofmanyprotocolssuchasvotingandblockchains relies on a secure source of randomness. Decentralised Randomness Beacon (DRB) has been considered as a promising approach, where a set of participants jointly generates a sequence of random outputs. While the DRBs have been extensively studied, they failed to capture the advantage that some participants learn random outputs earlier than other participants. In time-sensitive protocols whose execution depends on the randomness from a DRB, such an advantage allows the adversary to behave adaptively according to random outputs, compromising the fairness and/or security in these protocols. In this paper, we formalise a new property, delivery-fairness, to quantify the advantage. In particular, we distinguish two aspects of delivery-fairness, namely length-advantage, i.e., how many random outputs an adversary can learn earlier than correct participants, and time-advantage, i.e., how much time an adversary can learn a given random output earlier than correct participants. In addition, we prove the lower bound of delivery-fairness showing optimal guarantee. We further analyse the delivery-fairness guarantee of state-of-the-art DRBs and discuss insights, which, we show through case studies, could help improve delivery-fairness of existing systems to its optimal.
In this paper, we present the first chosen-ciphertext (CC) cache-timing attacks on the reference implementation of HQC. We build a cache-timing based distinguisher for implementing a plaintext-checking (PC) oracle. The PC oracle uses side-channel information to check if a given ciphertext decrypts to a given message. This is done by identifying a vulnerability during the generating process of two vectors in the reference implementation of HQC. We also propose a new method of using PC oracles for chosen-ciphertext side-channel attacks against HQC, which may have independent interest. We show a general proof-of-concept attack, where we use the Flush&Reload technique and also derive, in more detail, a practical attack on an HQC execution on Intel SGX, where the Prime&Probe technique is used. We show the exact path to do key recovery by explaining the detailed steps, using the PC oracle. In both scenarios, the new attack requires $53,857$ traces on average with much fewer PC oracle calls than the timing attack of Guo et al. CHES 2022 on an HQC implementation.
This paper combines techniques from several previous papers with some modifications to improve the previous cryptanalysis of 3-round Keccak-256. Furthermore, we propose a fast rebuilding method to improve the efficiency of solving equation systems. As a result, the guessing times of finding a preimage for 3-round Keccak-256 are decreased from $2^{65}$ to $2^{52}$, and the solving time of each guess is decreased from $2^{9}$ 3-round Keccak calls to $2^{5.3}$ 3-round Keccak calls. We identify a preimage of all '0' digest for 3-round Keccak-256 to support the effectiveness of our methodology.
Secure neural network inference has been a promising solution to private Deep-Learning-as-a-Service, which enables the service provider and user to execute neural network inference without revealing their private inputs. However, the expensive overhead of current schemes is still an obstacle when applied in real applications. In this work, we present \textsc{Meteor}, an online communication-efficient and fast secure 3-party computation neural network inference system aginst semi-honest adversary in honest-majority. The main contributions of \textsc{Meteor} are two-fold: \romannumeral1) We propose a new and improved 3-party secret sharing scheme stemming from the \textit{linearity} of replicated secret sharing, and design efficient protocols for the basic cryptographic primitives, including linear operations, multiplication, most significant bit extraction, and multiplexer. \romannumeral2) Furthermore, we build efficient and secure blocks for the widely used neural network operators such as Matrix Multiplication, ReLU, and Maxpool, along with exploiting several specific optimizations for better efficiency. Our total communication with the setup phase is a little larger than SecureNN (PoPETs'19) and \textsc{Falcon} (PoPETs'21), two state-of-the-art solutions, but the gap is not significant when the online phase must be optimized as a priority. Using \textsc{Meteor}, we perform extensive evaluations on various neural networks. Compared to SecureNN and \textsc{Falcon}, we reduce the online communication costs by up to $25.6\times$ and $1.5\times$, and improve the running-time by at most $9.8\times$ (resp. $8.1\times$) and $1.5\times$ (resp. $2.1\times$) in LAN (resp. WAN) for the online inference.
Multiparty garbling is the most popular approach for constant-round secure multiparty computation (MPC). Despite being the focus of significant research effort, instantiating prior approaches to multiparty garbling results in constant-round MPC that can not realistically accommodate large numbers of parties. In this work we present the first global-scale multiparty garbling protocol. The per-party communication complexity of our protocol decreases as the number of parties participating in the protocol increases---for the first time matching the asymptotic communication complexity of non-constant round MPC protocols. Our protocol achieves malicious security in the honest-majority setting and relies on the hardness of the Learning Party with Noise assumption.
In LWE-based KEMs, observed decryption errors leak information about the secret key in the form of equations or inequalities. Several practical fault attacks have already exploited such leakage by either directly applying a fault or enabling a chosen-ciphertext attack using a fault. When the leaked information is in the form of inequalities, the recovery of the secret key is not trivial. Recent methods use either statistical or algebraic methods (but not both), with some being able to handle incorrect information. We answer this question positively by proposing an error-tolerant combination of statistical and algebraic methods that make use of the advantages of both approaches. The combination enables us to improve upon existing methods -- we use both fewer inequalities and are more resistant to errors. We further provide precise security estimates based on the number of available inequalities. Our recovery method applies to several types of implementation attacks in which decryption errors are used in a chosen-ciphertext attack. We practically demonstrate the improved performance of our approach in a key-recovery attack against Kyber with fault-induced decryption errors.
Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (NIZKs) and in particular succinct NIZK arguments of knowledge (so called zk-SNARKs) increasingly see real-world adoption in large and complex systems. A requirement that turns out to be important for NIZKs is ensuring non-malleability of proofs, which can be achieved via the property of simulation extractability (SE). Moreover, many zk-SNARKs require a trusted setup, i.e., a common reference string (CRS), and in practice it is desirable to reduce the trust in the CRS generation. Latter can be achieved via the notions of subversion or updatable CRS. Another important property when deployed in large and complex systems is the secure composition of protocols, e.g., via using the Universal Composability (UC) framework. Relying on the UC frameworks allows to arbitrarily and securely compose protocols in a modular way. In this work, we are interested in whether zk-SNARKs can provide all these desired properties. This is a tricky task as the UC framework rules out several natural techniques for such a construction. Our main result is to show that achieving these properties is indeed possible in a generic and modular way when slightly relaxing the succinctness properties of zk-SNARKs to those of a circuit-succinct NIZK which is not witness-succinct, i.e., by increasing the proof size of the underlying zk-SNARK by the size of the witness $w$. We will argue that for various practical applications of zk-SNARKs this overhead is perfectly tolerable. Our starting point is a framework by Abdolmaleki et al. called Lamassu (ACM CCS'20) which we extend in several directions. Moreover, we implement our compiler on top of Sonic (ACM CCS'19) and provide benchmarks as well as a discussion on the choice of the required primitives.
While the efficiency of secure multi-party computation protocols has greatly increased in the last few years, these improvements and protocols are often based on rather unrealistic, idealised, assumptions about how technology is deployed in the real world. In this work we examine multi-party computation protocols in the presence of two major constraints present in deployed systems. Firstly, we consider the situation where the parties are connected not by direct point-to-point connections, but by a star-like topology with a few central post-office style relays. Secondly, we consider MPC protocols with a strong honest majority ($n \gg t/2$) in which we have stragglers (some parties are progressing slower than others). We model stragglers by allowing the adversary to delay messages to and from some parties for a given length of time. We first show that having only a single honest rely is enough to ensure consensus of the messages sent within a protocol; secondly, we show that special care must be taken to describe multiplication protocols in the case of relays and stragglers and that some well known protocols do not guarantee privacy and correctness in this setting; thirdly, we present an efficient honest-majority MPC protocol which can be run on top of the relays and which provides active-security with abort in the case of a strong honest majority, even when run with stragglers. We back up our protocol presentation with both experimental evaluations and simulations of the effect of the relays and delays on our protocol.
The TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol is the most important, most attacked, most analysed and most used cryptographic protocol in the world today. TLS is critical to the integrity of the Internet, and if it were to be broken e-commerce would become impossible, with very serious implications for the global economy. Furthermore TLS is likely to assume even greater significance in the near future with the rapid growth of an Internet of Things (IoT) -- a multiplicity of internet connected devices all engaged in secure inter-communication. However the impending invention of a Cryptographically Relevant Quantum Computer (CRQC) would represent an existential threat to TLS in its current form. As it stands the latest version TLS1.3, benefiting as it does from years of research and study, provides effective security, but it must soon be updated to resist this new threat. In this research we first undertake a new clean-room implementation of a small-footprint open source TLS1.3, written in C++ and Rust, and suitable for IoT applications. Our implementation is designed to be cryptographically agile, so that it can easily accomodate new post-quantum cryptographic primitives. Next we use this new implementation as a vehicle to study the impact of going post-quantum, with a particular emphasis on the impact on the Internet of Things. Finally we showcase the flexibility of our implementation by proposing an implementation of TLS that uses identity-based encryption to mitigate this impact.
TLS termination, which is essential to network and security infrastructure providers, is an extremely latency sensitive operation that benefits from access to sensitive key material close to the edge. However, increasing regulatory concerns prompt customers to demand sophisticated controls on where their keys may be accessed. While traditional access-control solutions rely on a highly available centralized process to enforce access, the round-trip latency and decreased fault tolerance make this approach unappealing. Furthermore, the desired level of customer control is at odds with customizing the distribution process for each key. To solve this dilemma, we have designed and implemented Portunus, a cryptographic storage and access control system built using a variant of public-key cryptography called attribute-based encryption (ABE). Using Portunus, TLS keys are protected using ABE under a policy chosen by the customer. Each server is issued unique ABE keys based on its attributes, allowing it to decrypt only the TLS keys for which it satisfies the policy. Thus, the encrypted keys can be stored at the edge, with access control enforced passively through ABE. If a server receives a TLS connection but is not authorized to decrypt the necessary TLS key, the request is forwarded directly to the nearest authorized server, further avoiding the need for a centralized coordinator. In comparison, a trivial instantiation of this system using standard public-key cryptography might wrap each TLS key with the key of every authorized data center. This strategy, however, multiplies the storage overhead by the number of data centers. We have deployed Portunus on Cloudflare's global network of over 400 data centers. Our measurements indicate that we can handle millions of requests per second globally, making it one of the largest deployments of ABE.
The usage of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to break cryptographic systems through hardware side-channels has enabled fast and adaptable attacks on devices like smart cards and TPMs. Current literature proposes fixed CNN architectures designed by domain experts to break such systems, which is time-consuming and unsuitable for attacking a new system. Recently, an approach using neural architecture search (NAS), which is able to acquire a suitable architecture automatically, has been explored. These works use the secret key information in the attack dataset for optimization and only explore two different search strategies using one-dimensional CNNs. We propose a NAS approach that relies only on using the profiling dataset for optimization, making it fully black-box. Using a large-scale experimental parameter study, we explore which choices for NAS, such as 1-D or 2-D CNNs and search strategy, produce the best results on 10 state-of-the-art datasets for Hamming weight and identity leakage models. We show that applying the random search strategy on 1-D inputs results in a high success rate and retrieves the correct secret key using a single attack trace on two of the datasets. This combination matches the attack efficiency of fixed CNN architectures, outperforming them in 4 out of 10 datasets. Our experiments also point toward the need for repeated attack evaluations of machine learning-based solutions in order to avoid biased performance estimates.
Evaluating exact computational resources necessary for factoring large integers by Shor algorithm using an ideal quantum computer is difficult because simplified circuits were used in past experiments, in which qubits and gates were reduced as much as possible by using the features of the integers, though 15 and 21 were factored on quantum computers. In this paper, we implement Shor algorithm for general composite numbers, and factored 96 RSA-type composite numbers up to 9-bit using a quantum computer simulator. In the largest case, $N=511$ was factored within 2 hours. Then, based on these experiments, we estimate the number of gates and the depth of Shor's quantum circuits for factoring 1024-bit and 2048-bit integers. In our estimation, Shor's quantum circuit for factoring 1024-bit integers requires $2.78 \times 10^{11}$ gates, and with depth $2.24 \times 10^{11}$, while $2.23 \times 10^{12}$ gates, and with depth $1.80 \times 10^{12}$ for 2048-bit integers.
We study satisfiability modulo the theory of finite fields and give a decision procedure for this theory. We implement our procedure for prime fields inside the cvc5 SMT solver. Using this theory, we construct SMT queries that verify the correctness of various zero knowledge proof compilers on various input programs. Our experiments show that our implementation is vastly superior to previous approaches (which encode field arithmetic using integers or bit-vectors).
Because of the rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT), embedded systems have become an interesting target for experienced attackers. ESP32~\cite{tech-ref-man} is a low-cost and low-power system on chip (SoC) series created by Espressif Systems. The firmware extraction of such embedded systems is a real threat to the manufacturer as it breaks its intellectual property and raises the risk of creating equivalent systems with less effort and resources. In 2019, LimitedResults~\cite{LimitedResultsPown} published power glitch attacks which resulted in dumping secure boot and flash encryption keys stored in the eFuses of ESP32. Therefore, Espressif patched this vulnerability and then advised its customers to use ESP32-V3, which is an updated SoC revision. This new version is hardened against fault injection attacks in hardware and software as announced by Espressif~\cite{ESPpatch}. In this paper, we present for the first time a deep hardware security evaluation for ESP32-V3. The main goal of this evaluation is to extract the firmware encryption key stored in the eFuses. This evaluation includes Fault Injection (FI) and Side-Channel (SC) attacks. First, we use Electromagnetic FI (EMFI) in order to show that ESP32-V3 doesn't resist EMFI. However, by experimental results, we show that this version contains a revised bootloader compared to ESP32-V1, which hardens dumping the eFuse keys by FI. Second, we perform a full SC analysis on the AES accelerator of ESP32-V3. We show that an attacker with a physical access to the device can extract all the keys of the hardware AES-256 after collecting 60K power measurements during the execution of the AES block. Third, we present another SC analysis for the firmware decryption mechanism, by targeting the decryption operation during the power up. Using this knowledge, we demonstrate that the full 256-bit AES firmware encryption key, which is stored in the eFuses, can be recovered by SC analysis using 300K power measurements. Finally, we apply practically the firmware encryption attack on Jade hardware wallet \cite{jade}.
Recent years have witnessed a push to bring multi-party computation (MPC) to practice and make it accessible to the end user/programmer. Despite novel ideas, on frontend language design (e.g., Wysteria, Viaduct), backend protocol design and implementation (e.g., ABY, MOTION), or both (e.g., SPDZ), classical compiler optimizations remain largely under-utilized (if not completely unused) in MPC programming. A likely reason is that such optimizations are often applied on a middle-end intermediate representation such as SSA. We put forth a methodology for an MPC programming compilation toolchain, which by mimicking the compilation methodology of standard imperative languages enables middle-end optimizations on MPC, yielding significant improvements. To this direction we devise an MPC circuit compiler that allows MPC programming in what is essentially Python, and inherits the structure (and therefore optimization opportunities) of the classical compilation pipeline. Our key conceptual contribution is advancing an intermediate language, which we call MPC-IR, that can be viewed as the analogue, in an MPC program’s compilation, of (enriched) SSA form. MPC-IR is a particularly appealing intermediate language as it allows backend-independent optimizations, a close analogy to machine independent optimizations in classical compilers. Demonstrating the power of our approach, we focus on a specific backend-independent optimization, SIMD-vectorization: We devise a novel classical-compiler-inspired automatic SIMD-vectorization on MPC-IR, which we show leads to significant speedup in circuit generation time and running time, as well as significant reduction in communication size and number of gates over the corresponding iterative schedule. We implement and benchmark our compiler from a Python-like program to an optimized circuit that can be fed into an MPC backend (for our benchmarks we make use of the MOTION backend for MPC). We view our exhaustive benchmarks as both a way to validate our optimization and end-to-end compiler, and as a contribution, by itself, to a more complete benchmarks suite for MPC programming—such benchmarks suites are common in classical compilers.
We initiate a formal study of individual cryptography Informally speaking, an algorithm Alg is individual if in every implementation of Alg there always exists an individual user that has full knowledge of the cryptographic secrets S used by Alg. In particular, it should be infeasible to design implementations of this algorithm that would hide the secret S by distributing it between a group of parties using an MPC protocol, or via outsourcing it to a trusted execution environment.
We construct a new encoder for hiding parameters in an interval membership function. As an interesting application, we design a simple and efficient virtual black-box obfuscator for evasive decision tree classifiers. The security of our construction relies upon random oracle paradigm. Our exclusive goal behind designing the obfuscator is that, not only will the solution increase the class of functions that has cryptographically secure obfuscators, but also address the open problem of non-interactive prediction in privacy-preserving classification using computationally inexpensive cryptographic hash functions.
In practical operational networks, it is essential to validate path integrity, especially when untrusted intermediate nodes are from numerous network infrastructures operated by several network authorities. Current solutions often reveal the entire path to all parties involved, which may potentially expose the network structures to malicious intermediate attackers. Additionally, there is no prior work done to provide a systematic approach combining the complete lifecycle of packet delivery, i.e., path slicing, path validation and path rerouting, leaving these highly-intertwined modules completely separated. In this work, we present a decentralized privacy-preserving path validation system 𝑃3𝑉 that integrates our novel path validation protocol with an efficient path slicing algorithm and a malice-resilient path rerouting mechanism. Specifically, leveraging Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge proofs, our path validation protocol XOR-Hash-NIZK protects the packet delivery tasks against information leakage about multi-hop paths and potentially the underlying network infrastructures. We implemented and evaluated our system on a state-of-the-art 5G Dispersed Computing Testbed simulating a multi-authority network. Our results show that while preserving the privacy of paths and nodes and enhancing the security of network service, our system optimizes the performance trade-off between network service quality and security/privacy.
A decisive contribution to the all-embracing protection of cryptographic software, especially on embedded devices, is the protection against SCA attacks. Masking countermeasures can usually be integrated into the software during the design phase. In theory, this should provide reliable protection against such physical attacks. However, the correct application of masking is a non-trivial task which often causes even experts to make mistakes. In addition to human-caused errors, micro-architectural CPU effects can lead even a seemingly theoretically correct implementation to fail satisfying the desired level of security in practice. This originates from different components of the underlying CPU which complicates the tracing of leakage back to a particular source and hence avoids to make general and device-independent statements about its security. In this work, we adapt PROLEAD for the evaluation of masked software, which has recently been presented at CHES 2022 and originally developed as a simulation-based tool to evaluate masked hardware designs. We enable to transfer the already known benefits of PROLEAD into the software world. These include (1) evaluation of larger designs compared to the state of the art, e.g. a full AES masked implementation, and (2) formal verification under the well-established robust probing security model. In short, together with an abstraction model for the micro-architecture, the robust probing model allows us to efficiently detect micro-architectural leakages while being independent of a concrete CPU design. As a concrete result, using PROLEAD_SW we evaluated the security of several publicly available masked software implementations and revealed multiple vulnerabilities.
Micciancio and Sorrel (ICALP 2018) proposed a bootstrapping algorithm that can refresh many messages at once with sublinearly many homomorphic operations per message. However, despite the attractive asymptotic cost, it is unclear if their algorithm could ever be practical, which reduces the impact of their results. In this work, we follow their general framework, but propose an amortized bootstrapping that is conceptually simpler and asymptotically cheaper. We reduce the number of homomorphic operations per refreshed message from $O(3^\rho \cdot n^{1/\rho} \cdot \log n)$ to $O(\rho \cdot n^{1/\rho})$, and the noise overhead from $\tilde{O}(n^{2 + 3 \cdot \rho})$ to $\tilde{O}(n^{1 + \rho})$. We also make it more general, by handling non-binary messages and applying programmable bootstrapping. To obtain a concrete instantiation of our bootstrapping algorithm, we propose a double-CRT (aka RNS) version of the GSW scheme, including a new operation, called shrinking, used to speed-up homomorphic operations by reducing the dimension and ciphertext modulus of the ciphertexts. We also provide a C++ implementation of our algorithm, thus showing for the first time the practicability of the amortized bootstrapping. Moreover, it is competitive with existing bootstrapping algorithms, being even around 3.4 times faster than an equivalent non-amortized version of our bootstrapping.
With the advent of secure function evaluation (SFE), distrustful parties can jointly compute on their private inputs without disclosing anything besides the results. Yao’s garbled circuit protocol has become an integral part of secure computation thanks to considerable efforts made to make it feasible, practical, and more efficient. These efforts have resulted in multiple optimizations on this primitive to enhance its performance by orders of magnitude over the last years. Such improvement targets have been defined to primarily reduce the cost of gar- bling in terms of computation and communication required for the creation, transfer, and evaluation of the garbled tables. The advancement in protocols has also led to the development of general-purpose compilers and tools made available to academia and industry. For decades, the security of protocols offered in those tools has been assured with regard to sound proofs and the promise that during the computation, no information on parties’ input would be leaking. In a parallel effort, however, side-channel analysis has gained momentum in connection with the real-world implementation of cryptographic primitives. Timing side-channel attacks have proven themselves effective in retrieving secrets from implementations, even through remote access to them. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of garbled circuit constructions, in particular, the optimized ones to timing at-tacks, has, surprisingly, never been discussed in the literature. This paper introduces Goblin, the first timing attack against two commonly employed optimized garbled circuit constructions, namely free-XOR, and half-gates. Goblin is a machine learning-assisted, non-profiling, single-trace timing attack, which successfully recovers the garbler’s input during the computation. In addition to presenting the results of the attack, our paper highlights the vulnerabilities of various available garbling tools found by applying existing techniques. In this regard, Goblin hopefully paves the way for further research in this matter.
In this paper, we propose a simple noncommutative-ring based UOV signature scheme with key-randomness alignment: Simple NOVA, which can be viewed as a simplified version of NOVA[48]. We simplify the design of NOVA by skipping the perturbation trick used in NOVA, thus shortens the key generation process and accelerates the signing and verification. Together with a little modification accordingly, this alternative version of NOVA is also secure and may be more suitable for practical uses. We also use Magma to actually implement and give a detailed security analysis against known major attacks.
At Eurocrypt 2015, Duc et al. conjectured that the success rate of a side-channel attack targeting an intermediate computation encoded in a linear secret-sharing, a.k.a masking with \(d+1\) shares, could be inferred by measuring the mutual information between the leakage and each share separately. This way, security bounds can be derived without having to mount the complete attack. So far, the best proven bounds for masked encodings were nearly tight with the conjecture, up to a constant factor overhead equal to the field size, which may still give loose security guarantees compared to actual attacks. In this paper, we improve upon the state-of-the-art bounds by removing the field size loss, in the cases of Boolean masking and arithmetic masking modulo a power of two. As an example, when masking in the AES field, our new bound outperforms the former ones by a factor \(256\). Moreover, we provide theoretical hints that similar results could hold for masking in other fields as well.
We present an algebraic attack on a McEliece-like scheme based on BCH codes (BCH-McEliece), where the Goppa code is replaced by a suitably permuted BCH code. Our attack continues the line of work devising attacks against McEliece-like schemes with Goppa-like codes, with the goal of getting a better understanding of why Goppa codes are so intractable. Our starting point is the work of Faugère, Perret and Portzamparc (Asiacrypt 2014). We take their algebraic model and adapt and improve their attack algorithm so that it can handle BCH-McEliece. We implement the attack and exhibit a parameter range where our attack is practical while generic attacks suggest cryptographic security.
We give some applications of the "embedding Lemma". The first one is a polynomial time (in $\log q$) algorithm to compute the endomorphism ring $\mathrm{End}(E)$ of an ordinary elliptic curve $E/\mathbb{F}_q$, provided we are given the factorisation of $Δ_π$. In particular, this computation can be done in quantum polynomial time. The second application is an algorithm to compute the canonical lift of $E/\mathbb{F}_q$, $q=p^n$, (still assuming that $E$ is ordinary) to precision $m$ in time $\tilde{O}(n m \log^{O(1)} p)$. We deduce a point counting algorithm of complexity $\tilde{O}(n^2 \log^{O(1)} p)$. In particular the complexity is polynomial in $\log p$, by contrast of what is usually expected of a $p$-adic cohomology computation. The third application is a quasi-linear CRT algorithm to compute Siegel modular polynomials of elliptic curves, which does not rely on any heuristic or conditional result (like GRH). We also outline how to generalize these algorithms to (ordinary) abelian varieties.
This paper presents a new method for quantum identity authentication (QIA) protocols. The logic of classical zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) due to Schnorr is applied in quantum circuits and algorithms. This novel approach gives an exact way with which a prover $P$ can prove they know some secret by encapsulating it in a quantum state before sending to a verifier $V$ by means of a quantum channel - allowing for a ZKP wherein an eavesdropper or manipulation can be detected with a fail-safe design. This is achieved by moving away from the hardness of the Discrete Logarithm Problem towards the hardness of estimating quantum states. This paper presents a method with which this can be achieved and some bounds for the security of the protocol provided. With the anticipated advent of a `quantum internet', such protocols and ideas may soon have utility and execution in the real world.
A Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) protocol allows two parties to agree upon a cryptographic key, when the only information shared in advance is a low-entropy password. The standard security notion for PAKE (Canetti et al., Eurocrypt 2005) is in the Universally Composable (UC) framework. We show that unlike most UC security notions, UC PAKE does not imply correctness. While Canetti et al. has briefly noticed this issue, we present the first comprehensive study of correctness in UC PAKE. Our contributions are four-fold: 1. We show that TrivialPAKE, a no-message protocol that does not satisfy correctness, is a UC PAKE; 2. We propose nine approaches to guaranteeing correctness in the UC security notion of PAKE, and show that seven of them are equivalent, whereas the other two are unachievable; 3. We prove that a direct solution, namely changing the UC PAKE functionality to incorporate correctness, is impossible; 4. Finally, we show how to naturally incorporate correctness by changing the model — we view PAKE as a three-party protocol, with the man-in-the-middle adversary as the third party. In this way, we hope to shed some light on the very nature of UC-security in the man-in-the-middle setting.
Fair exchange (also referred to as atomic swap) is a fundamental operation in any cryptocurrency, that allows users to atomically exchange coins. While a large body of work has been devoted to this problem, most solutions lack on-chain privacy. Thus, coins retain a public transaction history which is known to degrade the fungibility of a currency. This has led to a flourishing line of related research on fair exchange with privacy guarantees. Existing protocols either rely on heavy scripting (which also degrades fungibility and leads to high transaction fees), do not support atomic swaps across a wide range of currencies, or come with incomplete security proofs. To overcome these limitations, we introduce Sweep-UC (Read as Sweep Ur Coins), the first fair exchange protocol that simultaneously is efficient, minimizes scripting, and is compatible with a wide range of currencies (more than the state of the art). We build Sweep-UC from modular sub-protocols and give a rigorous security analysis in the UC-framework. Many of our tools and security definitions can be used in standalone fashion and may serve as useful components for future constructions of fair exchange.
Sealed bid auctions are used to allocate a resource among a set of interested parties. Traditionally, auctions need the presence of a trusted auctioneer to whom the bidders provide their private bid values. Existence of such a trusted party is not an assumption easily realized in practice. Generic secure computation protocols can be used to remove a trusted party. However, generic techniques result in inefficient protocols, and typically do not provide fairness - that is, a corrupt party can learn the output and abort the protocol thereby preventing other parties from learning the output. At CRYPTO 2009, Miltersen, Nielsen and Triandopoulos [MNT09], introduced the problem of building auctions that are secure against rational bidders. Such parties are modeled as self-interested agents who care more about maximizing their utility than about learning information about bids of other agents. To realize this, they put forth a novel notion of information utility and introduce a game-theoretic framework that helps analyse protocols while taking into account both information utility as well as monetary utility. Unfortunately, their construction makes use a of generic MPC protocol and, consequently, the authors do not analyze the concrete efficiency of their protocol. In this work, we construct the first concretely efficient and provably secure protocol for First Price Auctions in the rational setting. Our protocol guarantees privacy and fairness. Inspired by [MNT09], we put forth a solution concept that we call Privacy Enhanced Computational Weakly Dominant Strategy Equilibrium that captures parties' privacy and monetary concerns in the game theoretic context, and show that our protocol realizes this. We believe this notion to be of independent interest. Our protocol is crafted specifically for the use case of auctions, is simple, using off-the-shelf cryptographic components. Executing our auction protocol on commodity hardware with 10 bidders, with bids of length 10, our protocol runs to completion in 0.141s and has total communication of 30KB.
Functional encryption features secret keys, each associated with a key function $f$, which allow to directly recover $f(x)$ from an encryption of $x$, without learning anything more about $x$. This property is particularly useful when delegating data processing to a third party as it allows the latter to perfom its task while ensuring minimum data leakage. However, this generic term conceals a great diversity in the cryptographic constructions that strongly differ according to the functions $f$ they support. A recent series of works has focused on the ability to search a pattern within a data stream, which can be expressed as a function $f$. One of the conclusions of these works was that this function $f$ was not supported by the current state-of-the-art, which incited their authors to propose a new primitive called Stream Encryption supporting Pattern Matching (SEPM). Some concrete constructions were proposed but with some limitations such as selective security or reliance on non-standard assumptions. In this paper, we revisit the relations between this primitive and two major subclasses of functional encryption, namely Hidden Vector Encryption (HVE) and Inner Product Encryption (IPE). We indeed first exhibit a generic transformation from HVE to SEPM, which immediately yields new efficient SEPM constructions with better features than existing ones. We then revisit the relations between HVE and IPE and show that we can actually do better than the transformation proposed by Katz, Sahai and Waters in their seminal paper on predicate encryption. This allows to fully leverage the vast state-of-the-art on IPE which contains adaptively secure constructions proven under standard assumptions. This results in countless new SEPM constructions, with all the features one can wish for. Beyond that, we believe that our work sheds a new light on the relations between IPE schemes and HVE schemes and in particular shows that some of the former are more suitable to construct the latter.
Alon et. al (Crypto 2020) initiated the study of MPC with Friends and Foes (FaF) security, which captures the desirable property that even up to $h^{*}$ honest parties should learn nothing additional about other honest parties’ inputs, even if the $t$ corrupt parties send them extra information. Alon et. al describe two flavors of FaF security: weak FaF, where the simulated view of up to $h^{*}$ honest parties should be indistinguishable from their real view, and strong FaF, where the simulated view of the honest parties should be indistinguishable from their real view even in conjunction with the simulated / real view of the corrupt parties. They give several initial FaF constructions with guaranteed output delivery (GOD); however, they leave some open problems. Their only construction which supports the optimal corruption bounds of $2t+h^{*} < n$ (where $n$ denotes the number of parties) only offers weak FaF security and takes much more than the optimal three rounds of communication. In this paper, we describe two new constructions with GOD, both of which support $2t+h^{*} < n$. Our first construction, based on threshold FHE, is the first three-round construction that matches this optimal corruption bound (though it only offers weak FaF security). Our second construction, based on a variant of BGW, is the first such construction that offers strong FaF security (though it requires more than three rounds, as well as correlated randomness). Our final contribution is further exploration of the relationship between FaF security and similar security notions. In particular, we show that FaF security does not imply mixed adversary security (where the adversary can make $t$ active and $h^{*}$ passive corruptions), and that Best of Both Worlds security (where the adversary can make $t$ active or $t+h^{*}$ passive corruptions, but not both) is orthogonal to both FaF and mixed adversary security.
We present the first round-optimal and plausibly quantum-safe oblivious transfer (OT) and multi-party computation (MPC) protocols from the computational CSIDH assumption - the weakest and most widely studied assumption in the CSIDH family of isogeny-based assumptions. We obtain the following results: - The first round-optimal maliciously secure OT and MPC protocols in the plain model that achieve (black-box) simulation-based security while relying on the computational CSIDH assumption. - The first round-optimal maliciously secure OT and MPC protocols that achieves Universal Composability (UC) security in the presence of a trusted setup (common reference string plus random oracle) while relying on the computational CSIDH assumption. Prior plausibly quantum-safe isogeny-based OT protocols (with/without setup assumptions) are either not round-optimal, or rely on potentially stronger assumptions. We also build a 3-round maliciously-secure OT extension protocol where each base OT protocol requires only 4 isogeny computations. In comparison, the most efficient isogeny-based OT extension protocol till date due to Lai et al. [Eurocrypt 2021] requires 12 isogeny computations and 4 rounds of communication, while relying on the same assumption as our construction, namely the reciprocal CSIDH assumption.
Use of cloud based storage-as-a-service has surged due to its many advantages such as scalability and pay-as-you-use cost model. However, storing data in the clear on third-party servers creates vulnerabilities, especially pertaining to data privacy. Applications typically encrypt their data before off- loading it to cloud storage to ensure data privacy. To serve a client’s read or write request, an application either reads or updates the encrypted data on the cloud, revealing the type of client access to the untrusted cloud. An adversary how- ever can exploit this information leak to compromise a user’s privacy by tracking read/write access patterns. Existing ap- proaches (used in Oblivious RAM (ORAM) and frequency smoothing datastores) hide the type of client access by always reading the data followed by writing it, sequentially, irrespec- tive of a read or write request, rendering one of these rounds redundant with respect to a client request. To mitigate this re- dundancy, we propose ORTOA- a One Round Trip Oblivious Access protocol that reads or writes data stored on remote storage in one round without revealing the type of access. To our knowledge, ORTOA is the first generalized protocol to obfuscate the type of access in a single round, reducing the communication overhead in half. ORTOA hides the type of individual access as well as the read/write workload distribu- tion of an application, and due to its generalized design, it can be integrated with many existing obliviousness techniques that hide access patterns such as ORAM or frequency smooth- ing. Our experimental evaluations show that for objects of 160B size ORTOA’s throughput is 1.4-1.7x that of a baseline that requires two rounds to hide the type of access; and the baseline incurs 1.5-1.9x higher latency than ORTOA.
Registration-based encryption (RBE) was recently introduced as an alternative to identity-based encryption (IBE), to resolve the key-escrow problem: In RBE, the trusted authority is substituted with a weaker entity, called the key curator, who has no knowledge of any secret key. Users generate keys on their own and then publicly register their identities and their corresponding public keys to the key curator. RBE is a promising alternative to IBE, retaining many of its advantages while removing the key-escrow problem, the major drawback of IBE. Unfortunately, all existing constructions of RBE use cryptographic schemes in a non black-box way, which makes them prohibitively expensive. It has been estimated that the size of an RBE ciphertext would be in the order of terabytes (though no RBE has even been implemented). In this work, we propose a new approach to construct RBE, from standard assumptions in bilinear groups. Our scheme is black-box and it is concretely highly efficient---a ciphertext is 914 bytes. To substantiate this claim, we implemented a prototype of our scheme and we show that it scales to millions of users. The public parameters of the scheme are in the order of kilobytes. The most expensive operation (registration) takes at most a handful of seconds, whereas the encryption and decryption runtimes are on the order of milliseconds. This is the first ever implementation of an RBE scheme and demonstrates that the practical deployment of RBE is already possible with today's hardware.
Attribute-based encryption (ABE) generalizes public-key encryption and enables fine-grained control to encrypted data. However, ABE upends the traditional trust model of public-key encryption by requiring a single trusted authority to issue decryption keys. If an adversary compromises the central authority and exfiltrates its secret key, then the adversary can decrypt every ciphertext in the system. This work introduces registered ABE, a primitive that allows users to generate secret keys on their own and then register the associated public key with a "key curator" along with their attributes. The key curator aggregates the public keys from the different users into a single compact master public key. To decrypt, users occasionally need to obtain helper decryption keys from the key curator which they combine with their own secret keys. We require that the size of the aggregated public key, the helper decryption keys, the ciphertexts, as well as the encryption/decryption times to be polylogarithmic in the number of registered users. Moreover, the key curator is entirely transparent and maintains no secrets. Registered ABE generalizes the notion of registration-based encryption (RBE) introduced by Garg et al. (TCC 2018), who focused on the simpler setting of identity-based encryption. We construct a registered ABE scheme that supports an a priori bounded number of users and policies that can be described by a linear secret sharing scheme (e.g., monotone Boolean formulas) from assumptions on composite-order pairing groups. Our approach deviates sharply from previous techniques for constructing RBE and only makes black-box use of cryptography. All existing RBE constructions (a weaker notion than registered ABE) rely on heavy non-black-box techniques. The encryption and decryption costs of our construction are comparable to those of vanilla pairing-based ABE. Two limitations of our scheme are that it requires a structured reference string whose size scales quadratically with the number of users (and linearly with the size of the attribute universe) and the running time of registration scales linearly with the number of users. Finally, as a feasibility result, we construct a registered ABE scheme that supports general policies and an arbitrary number of users from indistinguishability obfuscation and somewhere statistically binding hash functions.
In CRYPTO 2012, Zhandry developed generic semi-constant oracle technique and proved security of an identity-based encryption scheme, GPV-IBE, and full domain hash (FDH) signature scheme in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). However, the reduction provided by Zhandry incurred a quadratic reduction loss. In this work, we provide a much tighter proof, with linear reduntion loss, for the FDH, probabilistc FDH (PFDH), and GPV-IBE in the QROM. Our proof is based on the measure-and-reprogram technique developed by Don, Fehr, Majenz and Schaffner.
The bottleneck in the proving algorithm of most of elliptic-curve-based SNARK proof systems is the Multi-Scalar-Multiplication (MSM) algorithm. In this paper we give an overview of a variant of the Pippenger MSM algorithm together with a set of optimizations tailored for curves that admit a twisted Edwards form. This is the case for SNARK-friendly chains and cycles of elliptic curves, which are useful for recursive constructions. Accelerating the MSM over these curves on mobile devices is critical for deployment of recursive proof systems on mobile applications. This work is implemented in Go and uses hand-written arm64 assembly for accelerating the finite field arithmetic (bigint). This work was implemented as part of a submission to the ZPrize competition in the open division “Accelerating MSM on Mobile” (https://www.zprize.io/). We achieved a 78% speedup over the ZPrize baseline implementation in Rust.
FUTURE is a recently proposed, lightweight block cipher. It has an AES-like, SP-based, 10-round encryption function, where, unlike most other lightweight constructions, the diffusion layer is based on an MDS matrix. Despite its relative complexity, it has a remarkable hardware performance due to careful design decisions. In this paper, we conducted a MILP-based analysis of the cipher, where we incorporated exact probabilities rather than just the number of active S-boxes into the model. Through the MILP analysis, we were able to find differential and linear distinguishers for up to 5 rounds of FUTURE, extending the known distinguishers of the cipher by one round.
Recent works of Roughgarden (EC'21) and Chung and Shi (SODA'23) initiate the study of a new decentralized mechanism design problem called transaction fee mechanism design (TFM). Unlike the classical mechanism design literature, in the decentralized environment, even the auctioneer (i.e., the miner) can be a strategic player, and it can even collude with a subset of the users facilitated by binding side contracts. Chung and Shi showed two main impossibility results that rule out the existence of a dream TFM. First, any TFM that provides incentive compatibility for individual users and miner-user coalitions must always have zero miner revenue, no matter whether the block size is finite or infinite. Second, assuming finite block size, no non-trivial TFM can simultaenously provide incentive compatibility for any individual user, and for any miner-user coalition. In this work, we explore what new models and meaningful relaxations can allow us to circumvent the impossibility results of Chung and Shi. Besides today’s model that does not employ cryptography, we introduce a new MPC-assisted model where the TFM is implemented by a joint multi-party computation (MPC) protocol among the miners. We prove several feasibility and infeasibility results for achieving strict and approximate incentive compatibility, respectively, in the plain model as well as the MPC-assisted model. We show that while cryptography is not a panacea, it indeed allows us to overcome some impossibility results pertaining to the plain model, leading to non-trivial mechanisms with useful guarantees that are otherwise impossible in the plain model. Our work is also the first to characterize the mathematical landscape of transaction fee mechanism design under approximate incentive compatibility, as well as in a cryptography-assisted model.
Let $N=pq$ be the product of two balanced prime numbers $p$ and $q$. Murru and Saettone presented in 2017 an interesting RSA-like cryptosystem that uses the key equation $ed - k (p^2+p+1)(q^2+q+1) = 1$, instead of the classical RSA key equation $ed - k (p-1)(q-1) = 1$. The authors claimed that their scheme is immune to Wiener's continued fraction attack. Unfortunately, Nitaj \emph{et. al.} developed exactly such an attack. In this paper, we introduce a family of RSA-like encryption schemes that uses the key equation $ed - k [(p^n-1)(q^n-1)]/[(p-1)(q-1)] = 1$, where $n>1$ is an integer. Then, we show that regardless of the choice of $n$, there exists an attack based on continued fractions that recovers the secret exponent.
We present two simple zero knowledge interactive proofs that can be instantiated with many of the standard decisional or computational hardness assumptions. Compared with traditional zero knowledge proofs, in our protocols the verifiers starts first, by emitting a challenge, and then the prover answers the challenge.
This note describes two pairing-friendly curves that embed ed25519, of different bit security levels. Our search is not novel; it follows the standard recipe of the Cocks-Pinch method. We implemented these two curves on arkworks-rs. This note is intended to document how the parameters are being generated and how to implement these curves in arkworks-rs 0.4.0, for further reference. We name the two curves as Yafa-108 and Yafa-146: - Yafa-108 is estimated to offer 108-bit security, which we parameterized to match the 103-bit security of BN254 - Yafa-146 is estimated to offer 146-bit security, which we parameterized to match the 132-bit security of BLS12-446 or 123-bit security of BLS12-381 We use these curves as an example to demonstrate two things: - The "elastic" zero-knowledge proof, Gemini (EUROCRYPT '22), is more than being elastic, but it is more curve-agnostic and hardware-friendly. - The cost of nonnative field arithmetics can be drastic, and the needs of application-specific curves may be inherent. This result serves as evidence of the necessity of EIP-1962, and the insufficiency of EIP-2537.
Proving discrete log equality for groups of the same order is addressed by Chaum and Pedersen's seminal work. However, there has not been a lot of work in proving discrete log equality for groups of different orders. This paper presents an efficient solution, which leverages a technique we call delegated Schnorr. The discovery of this technique is guided by a design methodology that we call the inspection model, and we find it useful for protocol designs. We show two applications of this technique on the Findora blockchain: **Maxwell-Zerocash switching:** There are two privacy-preserving transfer protocols on the Findora blockchain, one follows the Maxwell construction and uses Pedersen commitments over Ristretto, one follows the Zerocash construction and uses Rescue over BLS12-381. We present an efficient protocol to convert assets between these two constructions while preserving the privacy. **Zerocash with secp256k1 keys:** Bitcoin, Ethereum, and many other chains do signatures on secp256k1. There is a strong need for ZK applications to not depend on special curves like Jubjub, but be compatible with secp256k1. Due to FFT unfriendliness of secp256k1, many proof systems (e.g., Groth16, Plonk, FRI) are infeasible. We present a solution using Bulletproofs over curve secq256k1 ("q") and delegated Schnorr which connects Bulletproofs to TurboPlonk over BLS12-381. We conclude the paper with (im)possibility results about Zerocash with only access to a deterministic ECDSA signing oracle, which is the case when working with MetaMask. This result shows the limitations of the techniques in this paper. This paper is under a bug bounty program through a grant from Findora Foundation.
We propose a countermeasure to the Castryck-Decru attack on SIDH. The attack heavily relies on the images of torsion points. The main input to our countermeasure consists in masking the torsion point images in SIDH in a way they are not exploitable in the attack, but can be used to complete the key exchange. This comes with a change in the form the field characteristic and a considerable increase in the parameter sizes.
A succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) allows a prover to produce a short proof that certifies the veracity of a certain NP-statement. In the last decade, a large body of work has studied candidate constructions that are secure against quantum attackers. Unfortunately, no known candidate matches the efficiency and desirable features of (pre-quantum) constructions based on bilinear pairings. In this work, we make progress on this question. We propose the first lattice-based SNARK that simultaneously satisfies many desirable properties: It (i) is tentatively post-quantum secure, (ii) is publicly-verifiable, (iii) has a logarithmic-time verifier and (iv) has a purely algebraic structure making it amenable to efficient recursive composition. Our construction stems from a general technical toolkit that we develop to translate pairing-based schemes to lattice-based ones. At the heart of our SNARK is a new lattice-based vector commitment (VC) scheme supporting openings to constant-degree multivariate polynomial maps, which is a candidate solution for the open problem of constructing VC schemes with openings to beyond linear functions. However, the security of our constructions is based on a new family of lattice-based computational assumptions which naturally generalises the standard Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption.
Private function evaluation (PFE) is a special type of MPC protocols that, in addition to the input privacy, can preserve the function privacy. In this work, we propose a PFE scheme for RAM. In particular, we first design an efficient 4-server distributed ORAM scheme with amortized communication $O(\log n)$ per access (both reading and writing). We then simulate a RISC RAM machine over the MPC platform, hiding (i) the memory access pattern, (ii) the machine state (including registers, program counter, condition flag, etc.), and (iii) the executed instructions. Our scheme can naturally support a simplified TinyRAM instruction set; if a public RAM program $P$ with given inputs $x$ needs to execute $z$ instruction cycles, our PFE scheme is able to securely evaluate $P(x)$ on private $P$ and $x$ within $5z+1$ online rounds. We prototype and benchmark our system for set intersection, binary search, quicksort, and heapsort algorithms. For instance, to obliviously perform the binary search algorithm on a $2^{10}$ array takes $5.81s$ with function privacy.
SQISign is an isogeny-based signature scheme that has short keys and signatures and is expected to be a post-quantum scheme. Its security depends on the hardness of the problem to find an isogeny between given two elliptic curves over $\mathbb{F}_{p^2}$, where $p$ is a large prime. For efficiency reasons, a public key in SQISign is taken from a set of supersingular elliptic curves with a particular property. In this paper, we investigate the security related to public keys in SQISign. First, we show some properties of the set of public keys. Next, we show that a key generation procedure used in implementing SQISign could not generate all public keys and propose a modification for the procedure. In addition, we confirm the latter result through an experiment.
We present a new construction for secure logistic regression training, which enables two parties to train a model on private secret-shared data. Our goal is to minimize online communication and round complexity, while still allowing for an efficient offline phase. As part of our construction we develop many building blocks of independent interest. These include a new approximation technique for the sigmoid function, which results in a secure protocol with better communication; secure spline evaluation and secure powers computation protocols for fixed-point values; and a new comparison protocol that optimizes online communication. We also present a new two-party protocol for generating keys for distributed point functions (DPFs) over arithmetic sharing, where previous constructions do this only for Boolean outputs. We implement our protocol in an end-to-end system and benchmark its efficiency. We can securely evaluate a sigmoid in $18$ ms online time and $0.5$ KB of online communication. Our system can train a model over a database with $70,000$ samples and $15$ features with online communication of $208.09$ MB and online time of $2.24$ hours at the cost of $6.11$c over WAN. Our benchmarks demonstrate that we reduce online communication over state of the art by $\approx 10 \times$ for sigmoid and $\approx38\times$ for logistic regression training.
Learning parity with noise (LPN) has been widely studied and used in cryptography. It was recently brought to new prosperity since Boyle et al. (CCS'18), putting LPN to a central role in designing secure multi-party computation, zero-knowledge proofs, private set intersection, and many other protocols. In this paper, we thoroughly studied the concrete security of LPN problems in these settings. We found that many conclusions from classical LPN cryptanalysis do not apply to this new setting due to the low noise rates, extremely high dimensions, various types (in addition to $\mathbb{F}_2$) and noise distributions. 1. For LPN over field $\mathbb{F}_q$, we give a parameterized reduction from an exact noise distribution to a regular one that not only generalizes the recent result by Feneuil, Joux and Rivain (Crypto'22), but also significantly reduces the security loss by paying only an additive price in dimension and number of samples. 2. We analyze the security of LPN over a ring $\mathbb{Z}_{2^\lambda}$. Although existing protocols based on LPN over integer rings use parameters as if they are over fields, we found an attack that effectively reduces the weight of a noise by half compared to LPN over fields. Consequently, prior works that use LPN over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^\lambda}$ overestimate up to 40 bits of security. 3. We provide a complete picture of the hardness of LPN over integer rings by showing: 1) the equivalence between its search and decisional versions; 2) an efficient reduction from LPN over $\mathbb{F}_2$ to LPN over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^\lambda}$; and 3) generalization of our results to any integer ring. 4. For LPN over finite fields, we found that prior analysis ignored some important differences between classical LPN cryptanalysis and the new setting, leading to overly conservative parameters. We show that even after bringing all classical LPN cryptanalysis, including the latest SD $2.0$ analysis (Asiacrypt'22), to the setting over finite fields, much less weight of noises is needed for the same level of security. To improve the use of LPN assumptions for a wide range of cryptographic protocols, we provide an open-sourced script that estimates the concrete security of LPN over integer rings and finite fields.
In CRYPTO'21, Shen et al. have proved in the ideal cipher model that $\textsf{Two-Keyed-DbHtS}$ construction is secure up to $2^{2n/3}$ queries in the multi-user setting independent of the number of users, where the underlying double-block hash function $\textsf{H}$ of the \textsf{Two-Keyed-DbHtS} construction is realized as the concatenation of two independent $n$-bit keyed hash functions $(\textsf{H}_{K_h,1}, \textsf{H}_{K_h, 2})$ such that each of the $n$-bit keyed hash function is $O(2^{-n})$ universal and regular. They have also demonstrated the applicability of their result to the key-reduced variants of \textsf{DbHtS} MACs, including \textsf{2K-SUM-ECBC}, $\textsf{2K-PMAC_Plus}$ and $\textsf{2K-LightMAC_Plus}$ without requiring domain separation technique and proved $2n/3$-bit multi-user security of these constructions in the ideal cipher model. Recently, Guo and Wang have invalidated the security claim of Shen et al.'s result by exhibiting three constructions, which are the instantiations of the $\textsf{Two-Keyed-DbHtS}$ framework, such that each of their $n$-bit keyed hash functions being $O(2^{-n})$ universal and regular, while the constructions themselves are secure only up to the birthday bound. In this work, we show a sufficient condition on the underlying Double-block Hash ($\textsf{DbH}$) function, under which we prove $3n/4$-bit multi-user security of the $\textsf{Two-Keyed-DbHtS}$ construction in the ideal-cipher model. As an instantiation, we show that two-keyed Polyhash-based $\textsf{DbHtS}$ construction is multi-user secure up to $2^{3n/4}$ queries in the ideal-cipher model. Furthermore, due to the generic attack on $\textsf{DbHtS}$ constructions by Ga\"etan et al. in CRYPTO'18, our derived bound for the construction is tight.
Private set operations allow two parties to perform secure computation on two private sets, such as intersection or union related functions. In this paper, we identify a framework for performing private set operations. At the technical core of our framework is multi-query reverse private membership test (mqRPMT), in which a client with a vector $X = (x_1, \dots, x_n)$ interacts with a server holding a set $Y$. As a result, the server only learns a bit vector $(e_1, \dots, e_n)$ indicating whether $x_i \in Y$ but without knowing the value of $x_i$, while the client learns nothing. We present two constructions of mqRPMT from newly introduced cryptographic primitive and protocol. One is based on commutative weak pseudorandom function (cwPRF), the other is based on permuted oblivious pseudorandom function (pOPRF). Both cwPRF and pOPRF can be realized from the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) like assumptions in the random oracle model. We also introduce a slightly weak version of mqRPMT dubbed mqRPMT$^*$, in which the client also learns the cardinality of $X \cap Y$. We show that mqRPMT$^*$ can be built from a category of multi-query private membership test (mqPMT) called Sigma-mqPMT, which in turn can be realized from DDH-like assumptions or oblivious polynomial evaluation. This makes the first step towards establishing the relation between mqPMT and mqRPMT. We demonstrate the practicality of our framework with implementations. By plugging our cwPRF-based mqRPMT to the general framework, we obtain various PSO protocols that are superior or competitive to the state-of-the-art protocols. For intersection functionality, our protocol is faster than the most efficient one for small sets. For cardinality functionality, our protocol achieves a $2.4-10.5\times$ speedup in running time and a $10.9-14.8\times$ shrinking in communication cost. For cardinality-with-sum functionality, our protocol achieves a $28.5-76.3\times$ speedup in running time and $7.4\times$ shrinking in communication cost. For union functionality, our protocol is the fisrt one that attains strict linear complexity. It requires the least concrete computation and communication costs in all settings, achieving a $2.7-17\times$ speedup in running time and $2\times$ shrinking in communication cost. Concretely, for input set of size $2^{20}$, our PSU protocol requires roughly 100 MB of communication, and 16 seconds using 4 threads on a laptop in the LAN setting. For private-ID functionality, our protocol achieves a $2.7-4.9\times$ speedup in running time. Moreover, by plugging our FHE-based mqRPMT$^*$ to the general framework, we obtain a PSU$^*$ protocol (the sender additionally learns the intersection size) suitable for unbalanced setting, whose communication complexity is linear in the size of the smaller set, and logarithmic in the larger set.
Digital signature is an essential primitive in cryptography, which can be used as the digital analogue of handwritten signatures but also as a building block for more complex systems. In the latter case, signatures with specific features are needed, so as to smoothly interact with the other components of the systems, such as zero-knowledge proofs. This has given rise to so-called signatures with efficient protocols, a versatile tool that has been used in countless applications. Designing such signatures is however quite difficult, in particular if one wishes to withstand quantum computing. We are indeed aware of only one post-quantum construction, proposed by Libert et al. at Asiacrypt'16, yielding very large signatures and proofs. In this paper, we propose a new construction that can be instantiated in both standard lattices and structured ones, resulting in each case in dramatic performance improvements. In particular, the size of a proof of message-signature possession, which is one of the main metrics for such schemes, can be brought down to less than 650 KB. As our construction retains all the features expected from signatures with efficient protocols, it can be used as a drop-in replacement in all systems using them, which mechanically improves their own performance, and has thus a direct impact on many applications. It can also be used to easily design new privacy-preserving mechanisms. As an example, we provide the first lattice-based anonymous credentials system.
Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables arbitrary computation on encrypted data, allowing users to upload ciphertexts to cloud servers for computation while mitigating privacy risks. Many cryptographic schemes fall under the umbrella of FHE, and each scheme has several open-source implementations with its own strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, developers have no straightforward way to choose which FHE scheme and implementation is best suited for their application needs, especially considering that each scheme offers different security, performance, and usability guarantees. To allow programmers to effectively utilize the power of FHE, we employ a series of benchmarks called the Terminator 2 Benchmark Suite and present new insights gained from running these algorithms with a variety of FHE back-ends. Contrary to generic benchmarks that do not take into consideration the inherent challenges of encrypted computation, our methodology is tailored to the secure computational primitives of each target FHE implementation. To ensure fair comparisons, we developed a versatile compiler (called T2) that converts arbitrary benchmarks written in a domain-specific language into identical encrypted programs running on different popular FHE libraries as a backend. Our analysis exposes for the first time the advantages and disadvantages of each FHE library as well as the types of applications most suited for each computational domain (i.e., binary, integer, and floating-point).
Cryptographic voting protocols have recently seen much interest from practitioners due to their (planned) use in countries such as Estonia, Switzerland, France, and Australia. Practical protocols usually rely on tested designs such as the mixing-and-decryption paradigm. There, multiple servers verifiably shuffle encrypted ballots, which are then decrypted in a distributed manner. While several efficient protocols implementing this paradigm exist from discrete log-type assumptions, the situation is less clear for post-quantum alternatives such as lattices. This is because the design ideas of the discrete log-based voting protocols do not carry over easily to the lattice setting, due to specific problems such as noise growth and approximate relations. In this work, we propose a new verifiable secret shuffle for BGV ciphertexts and a compatible verifiable distributed decryption protocol. The shuffle is based on an extension of a shuffle of commitments to known values which is combined with an amortized proof of correct re-randomization. The verifiable distributed decryption protocol uses noise drowning, proving the correctness of decryption steps in zero-knowledge. Both primitives are then used to instantiate the mixing-and-decryption electronic voting paradigm from lattice-based assumptions. We give concrete parameters for our system, estimate the size of each component and provide implementations of all important sub-protocols. Our experiments show that the shuffle and decryption protocol is suitable for use in real-world e-voting schemes.
An important cryptographic operation on elliptic curves is hashing to a point on the curve. When the curve is not of prime order, the point is multiplied by the cofactor so that the result has a prime order. This is important to avoid small subgroup attacks for example. A second important operation, in the composite-order case, is testing whether a point belongs to the subgroup of prime order. A pairing is a bilinear map e : G1 × G2 → GT where G1 and G2 are distinct subgroups of prime order r of an elliptic curve, and GT is a multiplicative subgroup of the same prime order r of a finite field extension. Pairing-friendly curves are rarely of prime order. We investigate cofactor clearing and subgroup membership testing on these composite-order curves. First, we generalize a result on faster cofactor clearing for BLS curves to other pairing-friendly families of a polynomial form from the taxonomy of Freeman, Scott and Teske. Second, we investigate subgroup membership testing for G1 and G2. We fix a proof argument for the G2 case that appeared in a preprint by Scott in late 2021 and has recently been implemented in different cryptographic libraries. We then generalize the result to both G1 and G2 and apply it to different pairing-friendly families of curves. This gives a simple and shared framework to prove membership tests for both cryptographic subgroups.
We introduce new protocols for private set intersection (PSI), building upon recent constructions of pseudorandom correlation generators, such as vector-OLE and ring-OLE. Our new constructions improve over the state of the art on several aspects, and perform especially well in the setting where the parties have databases with small entries. We obtain three main contributions: 1. We introduce a new semi-honest PSI protocol that combines subfield vector-OLE with hash-based PSI. Our protocol is the first PSI protocol to achieve communication complexity independent of the computational security parameter κ, and has communication lower than all previous known protocols for input sizes ℓ below 70 bits. 2. We enhance the security of our protocol to the malicious setting, using two different approaches. In particular, we show that applying the dual execution technique yields a malicious PSI whose communication remains independent of κ, and improves over all known PSI protocols for small values of ℓ. 3. As most previous protocols, our above protocols are in the random oracle model. We introduce a third protocol which relies on subfield ring-OLE to achieve maliciously secure PSI in the standard model, under the ring-LPN assumption. Our protocol enjoys extremely low communication, reasonable computation, and standard model security. Furthermore, it is batchable: the message of a client can be reused to compute the intersection of their set with that of multiple servers, yielding further reduction in the overall amortized communication.
The understanding of directionality for updatable encryption (UE) schemes is important, but not yet completed in the literature. We show that security in the backward-leak uni-directional key updates setting is equivalent to the no-directional one. Combining with the work of Jiang (ASIACRYPT 2020) and Nishimaki (PKC 2022), it is showed that the backward-leak notion is the strongest one among all known key update notions and more relevant in practice. We propose two novel generic constructions of UE schemes that are secure in the backward-leak uni-directional key update setting from public key encryption (PKE) schemes: the first one requires a key and message homomorphic PKE scheme and the second one requires a bootstrappable PKE scheme. These PKE can be constructed based on standard assumptions (such as the Decisional Diffie-Hellman and Learning With Errors assumptions).
Updatable Encryption (UE) and Proxy Re-encryption (PRE) allow re-encrypting a ciphertext from one key to another in the symmetric-key and public-key settings, respectively, without decryption. A longstanding open question has been the following: do unidirectional UE and PRE schemes (where ciphertext re-encryption is permitted in only one direction) necessarily require stronger/more structured assumptions as compared to their bidirectional counterparts? Known constructions of UE and PRE seem to exemplify this "gap" -- while bidirectional schemes can be realized as relatively simple extensions of public-key encryption from standard assumptions such as DDH or LWE, unidirectional schemes typically rely on stronger assumptions such as FHE or indistinguishability obfuscation (iO), or highly structured cryptographic tools such as bilinear maps or lattice trapdoors. In this paper, we bridge this gap by showing the first feasibility results for realizing unidirectional UE and PRE from a new generic primitive that we call Key and Plaintext Homomorphic Encryption (KPHE) -- a public-key encryption scheme that supports additive homomorphisms on its plaintext and key spaces simultaneously. We show that KPHE can be instantiated from DDH. This yields the first constructions of unidirectional UE and PRE from DDH. Our constructions achieve the strongest notions of post-compromise security in the standard model. Our UE schemes also achieve "backwards-leak directionality" of key updates (a notion we discuss is equivalent, from a security perspective, to that of unidirectionality with no-key updates). Our results establish (somewhat surprisingly) that unidirectional UE and PRE schemes satisfying such strong security notions do not, in fact, require stronger/more structured cryptographic assumptions as compared to bidirectional schemes.
Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption(\MK) based on Learning With Error assumption(\LWE) usually lifts ciphertexts of different users to new ciphertexts under a common public key to enable homomorphic evaluation. The efficiency of the current Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption(MKFHE) scheme is mainly restricted by two aspects: \begin{enumerate} \item \textbf{Expensive ciphertext expansion operation} : A boolean circuit with input length $N$, multiplication depth $L$, security parameter $\lambda$ , the number of additional encryptions introduced to achieve ciphertext expansion is $O(N\lambda^6L^4)$. \item \textbf{Noise flooding technology resulting large module $q$} : In order to prove the security of the scheme, the noise flooding technology introduced in the encryption and distributed decryption stages will lead to a huge modulus $q$. \end{enumerate} In this paper we solve the first problem by present a framework that we call Key-Lifting Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption(\KL). With this \emph{key lifting} procedure, the number of encryptions for a local user is pulled back to $O(N)$ as single-key fully homomorphic encryption(\FHE). For the second problem, based on R\'{e}nyi divergence, we propose an optimized proof method which removes the noise flooding technology in the encryption phase. On the other hand, in the distributed decryption phase, we prove that the asymmetric nature of the DGSW ciphertext, that is, as long as the depth of the circuit is sufficient, the noise after decryption will not leak the noise in the initial ciphertext. At this time, as long as the encryption scheme is leakage-resilient, even without noise flooding, our initial ciphertext is semantically secure, which greatly reducing the size of modulus $q$(with $\log q = O(L)$) and the computational overhead of the entire scheme. $\qquad$Moreover, we also consider \RLWE for efficiency in practice. Due to the structural properties of polynomial rings, such \LWE-based scheme based on Leftover hash lemma(LHL) cannot be trivially transplanted to \RLWE-based scheme. We give a \RLWE-based \KL under Random Oracle Model(ROM) by introducing a bit commitment protocol. \keywords{Multi-key homomorphic encryption $\cdot$ LWE $\cdot$ RLWE $\cdot$ Leakage resilient cryptography.}
This note explains how to guarantee the membership of a point in the prime-order subgroup of an elliptic curve (over a finite field) satisfying some moderate conditions. For this purpose, we apply the Tate pairing on the curve, however it is not required to be pairing-friendly. Whenever the cofactor is small, the new subgroup test is much more efficient than other known ones, because it needs to compute at most two $n$-th power residue symbols (with small $n$) in the basic field. More precisely, the running time of the test is (sub-)quadratic in the bit length of the field size, which is comparable with the Decaf-style technique. The test is relevant, e.g., for the zk-SNARK friendly curves Bandersnatch and Jubjub proposed by the Ethereum and Zcash research teams respectively.
Encryption satisfying CCA2 security is commonly known to be unnecessarily strong for realizing secure channels. Moreover, CCA2 constructions in the standard model are far from being competitive practical alternatives to constructions via random oracle. A promising research area to alleviate this problem are weaker security notions—like IND-RCCA secure encryption or IND-atag-wCCA secure tag-based encryption—which are still able to facilitate secure message transfer (SMT) via authenticated channels. In this paper we introduce the concept of sender-binding encryption (SBE), unifying prior approaches of SMT construction in the universal composability (UC) model. We furthermore develop the corresponding non-trivial security notion of IND-SB-CPA and formally prove that it suffices for realizing SMT in conjunction with authenticated channels. Our notion is the weakest so far in the sense that it generically implies the weakest prior notions—RCCA and atag-wCCA—without additional assumptions, while the reverse is not true. A direct consequence is that IND-stag-wCCA, which is strictly weaker than IND-atag-wCCA but stronger than our IND-SB-CPA, can be used to construct a secure channel. Finally, we give an efficient IND-SB-CPA secure construction in the standard model from IND-CPA secure double receiver encryption (DRE) based on McEliece. This shows that IND-SB-CPA security yields simpler and more efficient constructions in the standard model than the weakest prior notions, i.e., IND-atag-wCCA and IND-stag-wCCA.
Collision resistance and collision finding are now extensively exploited in Cryptography, especially in the case of quantum computing. For any function $f:[M]\to[N]$ with $f(x)$ uniformly distributed over $[N]$, Zhandry has shown that the number $\Theta(N^{1/3})$ of queries is both necessary and sufficient for finding a collision in $f$ with constant probability. However, there is still a gap between the upper and the lower bounds of query complexity in general non-uniform distributions. In this paper, we investigate the quantum query complexity of collision-finding problem with respect to general non-uniform distributions. Inspired by previous work, we pose the concept of collision domain and a new parameter $\gamma$ that heavily depends on the underlying non-uniform distribution. We then present a quantum algorithm that uses $O(\gamma^{1/6})$ quantum queries to find a collision for any non-uniform random function. By making a transformation of a problem in non-uniform setting into a problem in uniform setting, we are also able to show that $\Omega(\gamma^{1/6}\log^{-1/2}\gamma)$ quantum queries are necessary in collision-finding in any non-uniform random function. The upper bound and the lower bound in this work indicates that the proposed algorithm is nearly optimal with query complexity in general non-uniform case.
Recent private information retrieval (PIR) schemes preprocess the database with a query-independent offline phase in order to achieve sublinear computation during a query-specific online phase. These offline/online protocols expand the set of applications that can profitably use PIR, but they make a critical assumption: that the database is immutable. In the presence of changes such as additions, deletions, or updates, existing schemes must preprocess the database from scratch, wasting prior effort. To address this, we introduce incremental preprocessing for offline/online PIR schemes, allowing the original preprocessing to continue to be used after database changes, while incurring an update cost proportional to the number of changes rather than the size of the database. We adapt two offline/online PIR schemes to use incremental preprocessing and show how it significantly improves the throughput and reduces the latency of applications where the database changes over time.
The 2014 European eIDAS regulation regulates strong electronic authentication and legally binding electronic signatures. Both require user "sole control". Historically smartcards are used based on direct interaction between user and relying party. Here sole control is provided by giving users both physical possession and control of the cryptographic key used for signing/authentication through a PIN. Such **classical** sole control is required in the 1999 electronic signature directive by some interpretations. The eIDAS regulation repeals the directive and explicitly relaxes its sole control requirements in a trade-off between security and usability. This allows user interaction to be outsourced to intermediary parties (authentication providers, signing services). This also allows mobile applications as user friendly alternatives for smartcards. However, current mobile platforms are only equipped with limited cryptographic hardware not supporting secure knowledge factors (PINs) controlling keys. The eIDAS relaxation raises concerns on sole control; intermediary parties should not be able to act as man-in-the-middle and impersonate users. In this paper we present a simple cryptographic design for signing and authentication on standard mobile platforms providing classical sole control. We argue that our design can meet the highest eIDAS requirements, effectively introducing a new signature category in a 2016 decision of the European Commission. We also sketch a SECDSA based implementation of the European Digital Identity Wallet recently proposed by the European Commission as part of the eIDAS regulation update.
In $1$-out-of-$q$ Oblivious Transfer (OT) protocols, a sender Alice is able to send one of $q\ge 2$ messages to a receiver Bob, all while being oblivious to which message was transferred. Moreover, the receiver learns only one of these messages. Oblivious Transfer combiners take $n$ instances of OT protocols as input, and produce an OT protocol that is secure if sufficiently many of the $n$ original OT instances are secure. We present new $1$-out-of-$q$ OT combiners that are perfectly secure against active adversaries. Our combiners arise from secret sharing techniques. We show that given an $\mathbb{F}_q$-linear secret sharing scheme on a set of $n$ participants and adversary structure $\mathcal{A}$, we can construct $n$-server, $1$-out-of-$q$ OT combiners that are secure against an adversary corrupting either Alice and a set of servers in $\mathcal{A}$, or Bob and a set of servers $B$ with $\bar{B}\notin\mathcal{A}$. If the normalized total share size of the scheme is $\ell$, then the resulting OT combiner requires $\ell$ calls to OT protocols, and the total amount of bits exchanged during the protocol is $(q^2+q+1)\ell\log q$. We also present a construction based on $1$-out-of-$2$ OT combiners that uses the protocol of Crépeau, Brassard and Robert (FOCS 1986). This construction provides smaller communication costs for certain adversary structures, such as threshold ones: For any prime power $q\geq n$, there are $n$-server, $1$-out-of-$q$ OT combiners that are perfectly secure against active adversaries corrupting either Alice or Bob, and a minority of the OT candidates, exchanging $O(qn\log q)$ bits in total.
State-separating proofs (SSP) is a recent methodology for structuring game-based cryptographic proofs in a modular way, by using algebraic laws to exploit the modular structure of composed protocols. While promising, this methodology was previously not fully formalized and came with little tool support. We address this by introducing SSProve, the first general verification framework for machine-checked state-separating proofs. SSProve combines high-level modular proofs about composed protocols, as proposed in SSP, with a probabilistic relational program logic for formalizing the lower-level details, which together enable constructing fully machine-checked cryptographic proofs in the Coq proof assistant. Moreover, SSProve is itself formalized in Coq, including the algebraic laws of SSP, the soundness of the program logic, and the connection between these two verification styles. To illustrate SSProve we use it to mechanize the simple security proofs of ElGamal and PRF-based encryption. We also validate the SSProve approach by conducting two more substantial case studies: First, we mechanize an SSP security proof of the KEM-DEM public key encryption scheme, which led to the discovery of an error in the original paper proof that has since been fixed. Second, we use SSProve to formally prove security of the sigma-protocol zero-knowledge construction, and we moreover construct a commitment scheme from a sigma-protocol to compare with a similar development in CryptHOL. We instantiate the security proof for sigma-protocols to give concrete security bounds for Schnorr's sigma-protocol.
The share size of general secret-sharing schemes is poorly understood. The gap between the best known upper bound on the total share size per party of $2^{0.59n}$ (Applebaum and Nir, CRYPTO 2021) and the best known lower bound of $\Omega(n/\log n)$ (Csirmaz, J. of Cryptology 1997) is huge (where $n$ is the number of parties in the scheme). To gain some understanding on this problem, we study the share size of secret-sharing schemes of almost all access structures, i.e., of almost all collections of authorized sets. This is motivated by the fact that in complexity, many times almost all objects are hardest (e.g., most Boolean functions require exponential size circuits). All previous constructions of secret-sharing schemes were for the worst access structures (i.e., all access structures) or for specific families of access structures. We prove upper bounds on the share size for almost all access structures. We combine results on almost all monotone Boolean functions (Korshunov, Probl. Kibern. 1981) and a construction of (Liu and Vaikuntanathan, STOC 2018) and conclude that almost all access structures have a secret-sharing scheme with share size $2^{\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})}$. We also study graph secret-sharing schemes. In these schemes, the parties are vertices of a graph and a set can reconstruct the secret if and only if it contains an edge. Again, for this family there is a huge gap between the upper bounds - $O(n/\log n)$ (Erdös and Pyber, Discrete Mathematics 1997) - and the lower bounds - $\Omega(\log n)$ (van Dijk, Des. Codes Crypto. 1995). We show that for almost all graphs, the share size of each party is $n^{o(1)}$. This result is achieved by using robust 2-server conditional disclosure of secrets protocols, a new primitive introduced and constructed in (Applebaum et al., STOC 2020), and the fact that the size of the maximal independent set in a random graph is small. Finally, using robust conditional disclosure of secrets protocols, we improve the total share size for all very dense graphs.
The Schnorr signature scheme is an efficient digital signature scheme with short signature lengths, i.e., $4k$-bit signatures for $k$ bits of security. A Schnorr signature $\sigma$ over a group of size $p\approx 2^{2k}$ consists of a tuple $(s,e)$, where $e \in \{0,1\}^{2k}$ is a hash output and $s\in \mathbb{Z}_p$ must be computed using the secret key. While the hash output $e$ requires $2k$ bits to encode, Schnorr proposed that it might be possible to truncate the hash value without adversely impacting security. In this paper, we prove that short Schnorr signatures of length $3k$ bits provide $k$ bits of multi-user security in the (Shoup's) generic group model and the programmable random oracle model. We further analyze the multi-user security of key-prefixed short Schnorr signatures against preprocessing attacks, showing that it is possible to obtain secure signatures of length $3k + \log S$ bits. Here, $S$ denotes the size of the hint generated by our preprocessing attacker, e.g., if $S=2^{k/2}$, then we would obtain $3.5k$-bit signatures. Our techniques easily generalize to several other Fiat-Shamir-based signature schemes, allowing us to establish analogous results for Chaum-Pedersen signatures and Katz-Wang signatures. As a building block, we also analyze the $1$-out-of-$N$ discrete-log problem in the generic group model, with and without preprocessing.