The concept of quantum bit commitment was introduced more than three decades ago in a failed attempt to base unconditional bit commitment solely on quantum information theory. In this work, we explore general properties of \textit{conditional} quantum bit commitment, which additionally assumes quantum computational hardness but without any mathematical structure (e.g. quantum-secure one-way function). While it is well known that a general quantum bit commitment scheme can only guarantee a fairly weak binding property compared with its classical counterpart, interestingly, we show that it also enjoys some other nice properties that its classical counterpart does not have. Among others, we show that any (interactive) quantum bit commitment scheme can be compiled into a non-interactive generic form (by an ensemble of quantum circuit pair). These general properties not only enable us to simplify both the construction and the security analysis of quantum bit commitment significantly but also suggest a potential use of it as a replacement of the classical one in quantum cryptography.
The Schnorr blind signing protocol allows blind issuing of Schnorr signatures, one of the most widely used signatures. Despite its practical relevance, its security analysis is unsatisfactory. The only known security proof is rather informal and in the combination of the generic group model (GGM) and the random oracle model (ROM) assuming that the ``ROS problem'' is hard. The situation is similar for (Schnorr-)signed ElGamal encryption, a simple CCA2-secure variant of ElGamal. We analyze the security of these schemes in the algebraic group model (AGM), an idealized model closer to the standard model than the GGM. We first prove tight security of Schnorr signatures from the discrete logarithm assumption (DL) in the AGM+ROM. We then give a rigorous proof for blind Schnorr signatures in the AGM+ROM assuming hardness of the one-more discrete logarithm problem and ROS. As ROS can be solved in sub-exponential time using Wagner's algorithm, we propose a simple modification of the signing protocol, which leaves the signatures unchanged. It is therefore compatible with systems that already use Schnorr signatures, such as blockchain protocols. We show that the security of our modified scheme relies on the hardness of a problem related to ROS that appears much harder. Finally, we give tight reductions, again in the AGM+ROM, of the CCA2 security of signed ElGamal encryption to DDH and signed hashed ElGamal key encapsulation to DL.
Though Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) and Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) technologies have brought more convenience to mobile services over past few years, but security concerns like mutual authentication, user anonymity, user untraceability, etc., have yet remained unresolved. In recent years, many efforts have been made to design security protocols in the context of MCC and MEC, but most of them are prone to security threats. In this paper, we analyze Jia et al.’s scheme, one of the latest authentication protocols for MEC environment and we show this scheme is vulnerable to user impersonation and ephemeral secret leakage attacks. Further, we demonstrate that the aforementioned attacks can be similarly applied to Li et al.’s scheme which recently derived from Jia et al.’s protocol. In this paper, we propose a provably secure authenticated key agreement protocol on the basis of Jia et al.’s scheme that not only withstands security weaknesses of it, but also offers low computational and communicational costs compared to the other related schemes. As a formal security proof, we simulate our scheme with widely used AVISPA tool. Moreover, we show the scalability and practicality of our scheme in a MEC environment through NS-3 simulation.
The current paper studies information-theoretically secure multiparty computation (MPC) over rings $\mathbb{Z}/p^{\ell}\mathbb{Z}$. This is a follow-up research of recent work on MPC over rings $\mathbb{Z}/p^{\ell}\mathbb{Z}$. In the work of Abspoel et al [TCC'19], a protocol based on the Shamir secret sharing over $\mathbb{Z}/p^{\ell}\mathbb{Z}$ was presented. As in the field case, one of the drawbacks of the protocol in [TCC'19] is that the share size has to grow as the number of players increases. Then several MPC protocols were developed in Abspoel et al [Asiacrypt 2020] in order to solve the problem of growing share size. However, the MPC protocols in [Asiacrypt 2020] suffer from several problems: (i) the offline multiplication gate has super-linear communication complexity; (ii) the share size is doubled for the most important case, namely over $\mathbb{Z}/2^{\ell}\mathbb{Z}$ due to infeasible lifting of self-orthogonal codes from fields to rings; (iii) most importantly, the BGW model could not be applied via the secret sharing given in [Asiacrypt 2020] due to lack of strong multiplication. Our contribution in this paper is three fold. Firstly, we overcome all the drawbacks in [TCC'19,Asiacrypt] mentioned above. Secondly, we establish an arithmetic secret sharing with strong multiplication which is the most important primitive in the BGW model. Thirdly, we generalize Reverse Multiplication Friendly Embeddings (RMFE) from fields to Galois rings. Note that RMFE has become a standard technique for amortized communication complexity in MPC (see [CRYPTO'18] and [CRYPTO'19]). To obtain our theoretical results, we use the existence of lifts of curves over rings, then use the known results stating that Riemann-Roch spaces are free modules. To make our scheme practical, we start from good algebraic geometry codes over finite fields obtained from existing computational techniques. Then we present, and implement, an efficient algorithm to Hensel-lift the generating matrix of the code, such that the multiplicative conditions are preserved. Existence of this specific lift is guaranteed by the previous theory. On the other hand, a random lifting of codes over from fields to Galois rings does not preserve multiplicativity in general. (Notice that our indirect method is motivated by the fact that, following the theory instead, would require to ``preprocess'' the curve under a form with ``smooth" equations, in particular with many variables, before lifting it. But computing on these objects over rings is out of the scope of existing research). Finally we provide efficient elementary methods for sharing and (robust) reconstruction of secrets over rings. As a result, arithmetic secret sharing over $\mathbb{Z}/p^{\ell}\mathbb{Z}$ with strong multiplication can be efficiently constructed and practically applied.
High-assurance cryptography leverages methods from program verification and cryptography engineering to deliver efficient cryptographic software with machine-checked proofs of memory safety, functional correctness, provable security, and absence of timing leaks. Traditionally, these guarantees are established under a sequential execution semantics. However, this semantics is not aligned with the behavior of modern processors that make use of speculative execution to improve performance. This mismatch, combined with the high-profile Spectre-style attacks that exploit speculative execution, naturally casts doubts on the robustness of high-assurance cryptography guarantees. In this paper, we dispel these doubts by showing that the benefits of high-assurance cryptography extend to speculative execution, costing only a modest performance overhead. We build atop the Jasmin verification framework an end-to-end approach for proving properties of cryptographic software under speculative execution, and validate our approach experimentally with efficient, functionally correct assembly implementations of ChaCha20 and Poly1305, which are secure against both traditional timing and speculative execution attacks.
We propose a framework for Nakamoto-style proof-of-work blockchains where blocks are treated differently in the ``longest chain rule''. The crucial parameter is a weight function assigning different weights to blocks according to their hash value. Our framework enables the analysis of different weight functions while proving all statements at the appropriate level of abstraction. This allows us to quickly derive protocol guarantees for different weight functions. We exemplify the usefulness of our framework by capturing the classical Bitcoin protocol as well as exponentially growing functions as special cases. We show the typical properties---chain growth, chain quality and common prefix---for both, and further show that the latter provide an additional guarantee, called optimistic responsiveness. More precisely, we prove for a certain class of exponentially growing weight functions that in periods without corruption, the confirmation time only depends on the unknown actual network delay instead of the known upper bound.
In a hybrid key encapsulation construction, multiple independent key encapsulation mechanisms are combined in a way that ensures the resulting key is secure according to the strongest mechanism. Such constructions can combine mechanisms that are secure in different settings and achieve the combined security of all mechanisms. For example classical and post-quantum mechanisms can be combined in order to secure communication against current threats as well as future quantum adversaries. This paper contains proofs of security for two hybrid key encapsulation mechanisms along with the relevant security definitions. Practical interpretation of these results is also provided in order to guide the use of these mechanisms in applications and standards.
Post-QuantumCryptography(PQC)isregardedasaneffectivewaytoresistattackswithquantum computers. Since National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) proposed its PQC standardiza- tion project in 2016, many candidates have been submitted and their quantum-resistant capability has been measuring by researchers. Besides this research, this Migration issues of Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) has been attracting more and more at- tentions ever since the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published round 3 candidates of its PQC standardization project in July, 2020. Many candidates’ quantum-resistant capability had been measured by researchers. Meanwhile, it is also indispensable to point out limitations and give proposals to those candidates’ migration issues, especially for migrating PQC to constrained environments. In this paper, we assume the cases of using PQC on hardware security module (HSM), which is designed to provide a trusted environment to perform cryptographic operations. Our comparisons includes the cases of not only small data (e.g. less than Kilobytes data) which is often used for key encryption or authentication, but also large data (e.g. several Gigabytes data) which is often used for document signing or code signing. We focus on and evaluate hashing and asymmetric operations of three lattice-based cryptosystems which are strong candidates of NIST’s PQC standardization project. Then we construct two kinds of cryptographic bound- aries for those cryptosystems that make their hashing operations inside or outside of a HSM. We compare their performances with several data sizes under different cryptographic boundary constructions, and discuss how much efficiency versus security we gain or lose with internal or external hashing. This problem already exists today with RSA/ECC and our result indicates that it is also acute with the new lattice-based schemes from the NIST round 3 finalists.
In this paper, we show how to apply Montgomery multiplication to the tag tracing variant of the Pollard's rho algorithm applied to prime order fields. This combines the advantages of tag tracing with those of Montgomery multiplication. In particular, compared to the previous version of tag tracing, the use of Montgomery multiplication entirely eliminates costly modular reductions and replaces these with much more efficient divisions by a suitable power of two.
We present MOTION, an efficient and generic open-source framework for mixed-protocol secure multi-party computation (MPC). MOTION is built in a user-friendly, modular, and extensible way, intended to be used as tool in MPC research and to increase adoption of MPC protocols in practice. Our framework incorporates several important engineering decisions such as full communication serialization, which enables MPC over arbitrary messaging interfaces and removes the need of owning network sockets. MOTION incorporates several novel performance optimizations that improve the communication complexity and latency, e.g., 2x better online round complexity of precomputed correlated Oblivious Transfer (OT). We instantiate our framework with protocols for N parties and security against up to N-1 passive corruptions: the MPC protocols of Goldreich-Micali-Wigderson (GMW) in its arithmetic and Boolean version and OT-based BMR (Ben-Efraim et al., CCS'16), as well as novel and highly efficient conversions between them, including a non-interactive conversion from BMR to arithmetic GMW. MOTION is highly efficient, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Compared to secure evaluation of AES-128 with N=3 parties in a high-latency network with OT-based BMR, we achieve a 16x better throughput of 16 AES evaluations per second using BMR. With this, we show that BMR is much more competitive than previously assumed. For N=3 parties and full-threshold protocols in a LAN, MOTION is 10x-18x faster than the previous best passively secure implementation from the MP-SPDZ framework, and 190x-586x faster than the actively secure SCALE-MAMBA framework. Finally, we show that our framework is highly efficient for privacy-preserving neural network inference.
Many studies focus on the blockchain privacy protection. Unfortunately, the privacy protection brings some issues (e.g., money-laundering problem). Tracing users' identities is a critical step in addressing these issues. When each user's identity in the blockchain data is determined, the regulator can do some regulatory operations (such as Big Data analysis) to decide who should be punished or who should own the lost data. In this paper, we propose SkyEye, a traceable scheme for blockchain, that can be applied to a class of blockchain application. SkyEye enables the regulator to trace users' identities. Moreover, we demonstrate the security of SkyEye under specific cryptographic assumptions. Finally, we implement two prototypes of SkyEye, and evaluate the running time and related data storage requirements by performing the aforementioned prototypes.
We revisit and take a closer look at a (not so well known) result of a 2017 paper, showing that the differential uniformity of any vectorial function is bounded from below by an expression depending on the size of its image set. We make explicit the resulting tight lower bound on the image set size of differentially $\delta$-uniform functions. We also significantly improve an upper bound on the nonlinearity of vectorial functions obtained in the same reference and involving their image set size. We study when the resulting bound is sharper than the covering radius bound. We obtain as a by-product a lower bound on the Hamming distance between differentially $\delta$-uniform functions and affine functions, which we improve significantly with a second bound. This leads us to study what can be the maximum Hamming distance between vectorial functions and affine functions. We provide an upper bound which is slightly sharper than a bound by Liu, Mesnager and Chen when $m< n$, and a second upper bound, which is much stronger in the case (happening in practice) where $m$ is near $n$; we study the tightness of this latter bound; this leads to an interesting question on APN functions, to which we answer. We finally make more precise the bound on the differential uniformity which was the starting point of the paper.
In this paper, we show how multiplication for polynomial rings used in the NIST PQC finalists Saber and NTRU can be efficiently implemented using the Number-theoretic transform (NTT). We obtain superior performance compared to the previous state of the art implementations using Toom–Cook multiplication on both NIST’s primary software optimization targets AVX2 and Cortex-M4. Interestingly, these two platforms require different approaches: On the Cortex-M4, we use 32-bit NTT-based polynomial multiplication, while on Intel we use two 16-bit NTT-based polynomial multiplications and combine the products using the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). For Saber, the performance gain is particularly pronounced. On Cortex-M4, the Saber NTT-based matrix-vector multiplication is 61% faster than the Toom-Cook multiplication resulting in 22% fewer cycles for Saber encapsulation. For NTRU, the speed-up is less impressive, but still NTT-based multiplication performs better than Toom–Cook for all parameter sets on Cortex-M4. The NTT-based polynomial multiplication for NTRU-HRSS is 10% faster than Toom–Cook which results in a 6% cost reduction for encapsulation. On AVX2, we obtain speed-ups for three out of four NTRU parameter sets. As a further illustration, we also include code for AVX2 and Cortex-M4 for the Chinese Association for Cryptologic Research competition award winner LAC (also a NIST round 2 candidate) which outperforms existing code.
Recent work, including ZKBoo, ZKB++, and Ligero, has developed efficient non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge (NIZKPoKs) for arbitrary Boolean circuits based on symmetric- key primitives alone using the “MPC-in-the-head” paradigm of Ishai et al. We show how to instantiate this paradigm with MPC protocols in the preprocessing model; once optimized, this results in an NIZKPoK with shorter proofs (and comparable computation) as in prior work for circuits containing roughly 300–100,000 AND gates. In contrast to prior work, our NIZKPoK also supports witness-independent preprocessing, which allows the prover to move most of its work to an offline phase before the witness is known. We use our NIZKPoK to construct a signature scheme based only on symmetric-key primitives (and hence with “post-quantum” security). The resulting scheme has shorter signatures than the scheme built using ZKB++ (with comparable signing/verification time), and is even competitive with hash-based signature schemes. To further highlight the flexibility and power of our NIZKPoK, we also use it to build efficient ring and group signatures based on symmetric-key primitives alone. To our knowledge, the resulting schemes are the most efficient constructions of these primitives that offer post-quantum security.
We present a cryptographic construction for anonymous tokens with private metadata bit, called PMBTokens. This primitive enables an issuer to provide a user with a lightweight, single-use anonymous trust token that can embed a single private bit, which is accessible only to the party who holds the secret authority key and is private with respect to anyone else. Our construction generalizes and extends the functionality of Privacy Pass (PETS’18) with this private metadata bit capability. It is based on the DDH and CTDH assumptions in the random oracle model and provides unforgeability, unlinkability, and privacy for the metadata bit. Both Privacy Pass and PMBTokens rely on non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (NIZKs). We present new techniques to remove the need for NIZKs, while still achieving unlinkability. We implement our constructions and we report their efficiency costs.
Efficient zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs for arbitrary boolean or arithmetic circuits have recently attracted much attention. Existing solutions suffer from either significant prover overhead (i.e., high memory usage) or relatively high communication complexity (at least &#954; bits per gate, for computational security parameter $\kappa$). In this paper, we propose a new protocol for constant-round interactive ZK proofs that simultaneously allows for an efficient prover with asymptotically optimal memory usage and significantly lower communication compared to protocols with similar memory efficiency. Specifically: • The prover in our ZK protocol has linear running time and, perhaps more importantly, memory usage linear in the memory needed to evaluate the circuit non-cryptographically. This allows our proof system to scale easily to very large circuits. • For statistical security parameter \rho = 40, our ZK protocol communicates roughly 9 bits/gate for boolean circuits and 2–4 field elements/gate for arithmetic circuits over large fields. Using 5 threads, 400 MB of memory, and a 200 Mbps network to evaluate a circuit with hundreds of billions of gates, our implementation (\rho = 40, \kappa = 128) runs at a rate of 0.45 \mu s/gate in the boolean case, and 1.6 \mu s/gate for an arithmetic circuit over a 61-bit field. We also present an improved subfield Vector Oblivious Linear Evaluation (sVOLE) protocol with malicious security that is of independent interest.
Most efficient zero-knowledge arguments lack a concrete security analysis, making parameter choices and efficiency comparisons challenging. This is even more true for non-interactive versions of these systems obtained via the Fiat-Shamir transform, for which the security guarantees generically derived from the interactive protocol are often too weak, even when assuming a random oracle. This paper initiates the study of state-restoration soundness in the algebraic group model (AGM) of Fuchsbauer, Kiltz, and Loss (CRYPTO '18). This is a stronger notion of soundness for an interactive proof or argument which allows the prover to rewind the verifier, and which is tightly connected with the concrete soundness of the non-interactive argument obtained via the Fiat-Shamir transform. We propose a general methodology to prove tight bounds on state-restoration soundness, and apply it to variants of Bulletproofs (Bootle et al, S&P '18) and Sonic (Maller et al., CCS '19). To the best of our knowledge, our analysis of Bulletproofs gives the first non-trivial concrete security analysis for a non-constant round argument combined with the Fiat-Shamir transform.
We show the applicability of Simon's period finding quantum algorithm to the cryptanalysis of several tweakable enciphering schemes (TESs), namely, CMC, EME, XCB, TET and FAST. For XCB, TET and FAST, the attacks reveal portions of the secret key. For all of the five TESs, we show distinguishing attacks based on two encryption queries.
Limited birthday distinguishers (LBDs) are widely used tools for the cryptanalysis of cryptographic permutations. In this paper we propose LBDs on several variants of the sLiSCP permutation family that are building blocks of two round 2 candidates of the NIST lightweight standardization process: SPIX and SpoC. We improve the number of steps with respect to the previously known best results, that used rebound attack. We improve the techniques used for solving the middle part, called inbound, and we relax the external conditions in order to extend the previous attacks. The lower bound of the complexity of LBDs has been proved only against functions. In this paper, we prove for the first time the bound against permutations, which shows that the known upper bounds are tight.
Metadata from voice calls, such as the knowledge of who is communicating with whom, contains rich information about people’s lives. Indeed, it is a prime target for powerful adversaries such as nation states. Existing systems that hide voice call metadata either require trusted intermediaries in the network or scale to only tens of users. This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of Aloha, the first system for voice communication that hides metadata over fully untrusted infrastructure and scales to tens of thousands of users. At a high level, Aloha follows a template in which callers and callees deposit and retrieve messages from private mailboxes hosted at an untrusted server. However, Aloha improves message latency in this architecture, which is a key performance metric for voice calls. First, it enables a caller to push a message to a callee in two hops, using a new way of assigning mailboxes to users that resembles how a post office assigns PO boxes to its customers. Second, it innovates on the underlying cryptographic machinery and constructs a new private information retrieval (PIR) scheme, QuickPIR, that reduces the time to process oblivious access requests for mailboxes. An evaluation of Aloha on a cluster of eighty machines on AWS demonstrates that it can serve 32K users with a 99-th percentile message latency of 726 ms—a 7× improvement over prior work in the same threat model.
The random oracle methodology has proven to be a powerful tool for designing and reasoning about cryptographic schemes. In this paper, we focus on the basic problem of correcting faulty—or adversarially corrupted—random oracles, so that they can be confidently applied for such cryptographic purposes. We prove that a simple construction can transform a “subverted” random oracle—which disagrees with the original one at a small fraction of inputs—into an object that is indifferentiable from a random function, even if the adversary is made aware of all randomness used in the transformation. Our results permit future designers of cryptographic primitives in typical kleptographic settings (i.e., those permitting adversaries that subvert or replace basic cryptographic algorithms) to use random oracles as a trusted black box.
The potential development of large-scale quantum computers is raising concerns among IT and security research professionals due to their ability to solve (elliptic curve) discrete logarithm and integer factorization problems in polynomial time. This would jeopardize IT security as we know it. In this work, we investigate two quantum-safe, hash-based signature schemes published by the Internet Engineering Task Force and submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology for use in secure boot. We evaluate various parameter sets for the use-case in question and we prove that post-quantum signatures with less than one second signing and less than 10ms verification would not have material impact (less than1‰) on secure boot. We evaluate the hierarchical design of these signatures in hardware-based and virtual secure boot. In addition, we develop Hardware Description Language code and show that the code footprint is just a few kilobytes in size which would fit easily in almost all modern FPGAs. We also analyze and evaluate potential challenges for integration in existing technologies and we discuss considerations for vendors embarking on a journey of image signing with hash-based signatures.
Tropical linear algebra has been recently put forward by Grigoriev and Shpilrain ~\cite{grigoriev2014tropical,grigoriev2018tropical} as a promising platform for the implementation of protocols of Diffie-Hellman and Stickel type. Based on the CSR expansion of tropical matrix powers, we suggest a simple algorithm for the following tropical discrete logarithm problem: ``Given that $A=V\otimes F^{\otimes t}$ for a unique $t$ and matrices $A$, $V$, $F$ of appropriate dimensions, find this $t$.'' We then use this algorithm to suggest a simple attack on a protocol based on the tropical semidirect product. The algorithm and the attack are guaranteed to work in some important special cases and are shown to be efficient in our numerical experiments.
Interactive oracle proofs (IOPs) are a hybrid between interactive proofs and PCPs. In an IOP the prover is allowed to interact with a verifier (like in an interactive proof) by sending relatively long messages to the verifier, who in turn is only allowed to query a few of the bits that were sent (like in a PCP). In this work we construct, for a large class of NP relations, IOPs in which the communication complexity approaches the witness length. More precisely, for any NP relation for which membership can be decided in polynomial-time and bounded polynomial space (e.g., SAT, Hamiltonicity, Clique, Vertex-Cover, etc.) and for any constant $\gamma>0$, we construct an IOP with communication complexity $(1+\gamma) \cdot n$, where $n$ is the original witness length. The number of rounds as well as the number of queries made by the IOP verifier are constant. This result improves over prior works on short IOPs/PCPs in two ways. First, the communication complexity in these short IOPs is proportional to the complexity of verifying the NP witness, which can be polynomially larger than the witness size. Second, even ignoring the difference between witness length and non-deterministic verification time, prior works incur (at the very least) a large constant multiplicative overhead to the communication complexity. In particular, as a special case, we also obtain an IOP for Circuit-SAT with rate approaching 1: the communication complexity is $(1+\gamma) \cdot t$, for circuits of size $t$ and any constant $\gamma>0$. This improves upon the prior state-of-the-art work of Ben Sasson et al. (ICALP, 2017) who construct an IOP for CircuitSAT with communication length $c \cdot t$ for a large (unspecified) constant $c \geq 1$. Our proof leverages recent constructions of high-rate locally testable tensor codes. In particular, we bypass the barrier imposed by the low rate of multiplication codes (e.g., Reed-Solomon, Reed-Muller or AG codes) - a core component in all known short PCP/IOP constructions.
We give secure parameter suggestions to use sparse secret vectors in LWE based encryption schemes. This should replace existing security parameters, because homomorphic encryption(HE) schemes use quite different variables from the existing parameters. In particular HE schemes using sparse secrets should be supported by experimental analysis, here we summarize existing attacks to be considered and security levels for each attacks. Based on the analysis and experiments, we compute optimal scaling factors for CKKS.
We describe the binary numeral tree—a type of binary tree uniquely suited to processing unbounded streams of data—and present a number of algorithms for efficiently constructing and verifying Merkle proofs within such trees. Specifically, we present existence proofs for single leaves, for a contiguous range of leaves, and for multiple disjoint ranges. We also introduce Merkle "diff" proofs, which assert that an arbitrary modification was correctly applied to an existing tree. Each algorithm, operating on a tree with $n$ leaves and $k$ disjoint proof ranges, requires $\mathcal{O}(\log_2(n))$ space and $\mathcal{O}(n)$ time, and yields proofs of size $\mathcal{O}(k\log_2 (n))$. Furthermore, each algorithm operates in streaming fashion, requiring only a single in-order pass over the leaf data.
Being based on a sound theoretical basis, masking schemes are commonly applied to protect cryptographic implementations against Side-Channel Analysis (SCA) attacks. Constructing SCA-protected AES, as the most widely deployed block cipher, has been naturally the focus of several research projects, with a direct application in industry. The majority of SCA-secure AES implementations introduced to the community opted for low area and latency overheads considering Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) platforms. Albeit a few, those which particularly targeted Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) as the implementation platform yield either a low throughput or a not-highly secure design. In this work, we fill this gap by introducing first-order glitch-extended probing secure masked AES implementations highly optimized for FPGAs, which support both encryption and decryption. Compared to the state of the art, our designs efficiently map the critical non-linear parts of the masked S-box into the built-in Block RAMs (BRAMs). The most performant variant of our constructions accomplishes five first-order secure AES encryptions/decryptions simultaneously in 50 clock cycles. Compared to the equivalent state-of-the-art designs, this leads to at least 70% reduction in utilization of FPGA resources (slices) at the cost of occupying BRAMs. Last but not least, we provide a wide range of such secure and efficient implementations supporting a large set of applications, ranging from low-area to high-throughput.
The modern financial world has seen a significant rise in the use of cryptocurrencies in recent years, partly due to the convincing lures of anonymity promised by these schemes. Bitcoin, despite being considered as the most widespread among all, is claimed to have significant lapses in relation to its anonymity. Unfortunately, studies have shown that many cryptocurrency transactions can be traced back to their corresponding participants through the analysis of publicly available data, to which the cryptographic community has responded by proposing new constructions with improved anonymity claims. Nevertheless, the absence of a common metric for evaluating the level of anonymity achieved by these schemes has led to a number of disparate ad hoc anonymity definitions, making comparisons difficult. The multitude of these notions also hints at the surprising complexity of the overall anonymity landscape. In this study, we introduce such a common framework to evaluate the nature and extent of anonymity in (crypto)currencies and distributed transaction systems, irrespective of their implementation. As such, our work lays the foundation for formalising security models and terminology across a wide range of anonymity notions referenced in the literature, while showing how ``anonymity'' itself is a surprisingly nuanced concept.
Blockchains suffer from a critical scalability problem where traditionally each network node maintains all network state, including records since the establishment of the blockchain. Sketches are popular hash-based data structures used to represent a large amount of data while supporting particular queries such as on set membership, cardinality estimation and identification of large elements. Often, to achieve time and memory savings, sketches allow potential inaccuracies in answers to the queries. The design of popular blockchain networks such as Bitcoin and Ethereum makes use of sketches for various tasks such as summarization of transaction blocks or declaring the interests of light nodes. Similarly, they seem natural to deal with the size of the state in blockchains. In this paper, we study existing and potential future applications of sketches in blockchains. We first summarize current blockchain use cases of sketches. Likewise, we explore how this coupling can be generalized to a wider range of sketches and additional functionalities. In particular, we explain how sketches can detect anomalies based on efficient an summary of the state or traffic.
In a two-party Circuit-based Private Set Intersection (PSI), $P_{0}$ and $P_{1}$ hold sets $X$ and $Y$ respectively and wish to securely compute a function $f$ over the set $X \cap Y$ (e.g., cardinality, sum over associated attributes, and threshold intersection). Following a long line of work, Pinkas et al. ($\mathsf{PSTY}$, Eurocrypt 2019) showed how to construct such a Circuit-PSI protocol with linear communication complexity. However, their protocol has super-linear computational complexity. In this work, we construct Circuit-PSI protocols with linear computational and communication cost. Further, our protocols are concretely more efficient than $\mathsf{PSTY}$ -- we are $\approx 2.3\times$ more communication efficient and are up to $2.8\times$ faster in LAN and WAN network settings. We obtain our improvements through a new primitive called Relaxed Batch Oblivious Programmable Pseudorandom Functions ($\mathsf{RB\text{-}OPPRF}$) that can be seen as a strict generalization of Batch $\mathsf{OPPRF}$s in $\mathsf{PSTY}$. While using Batch $\mathsf{OPPRF}$s, in the context of Circuit-PSI results, in protocols with super-linear computational complexity, we construct $\mathsf{RB\text{-}OPPRF}$s that can be used to build linear cost and concretely efficient Circuit-PSI protocols. We believe that the $\mathsf{RB\text{-}OPPRF}$ primitive could be of independent interest. As another contribution, we provide more communication efficient protocols (than prior works) for the task of private set membership -- a primitive used in many PSI protocols including ours.
Identity-based encryption (IBE), introduced by Shamir in 1984, eliminates the need for public-key infrastructure. The sender can simply encrypt a message by using the recipient's identity (such as their email or IP address) without needing to look up the public key. In particular, when ciphertexts of an IBE scheme do not reveal the identity of the recipient, this scheme is known as an anonymous IBE scheme. Recently, Blazy et al. (ARES'19) analyzed the trade-off between public safety and unconditional privacy in anonymous IBE and introduced a new notion that incorporates traceability into anonymous IBE, called anonymous IBE with traceable identities (AIBET). However, their construction is based on the discrete logarithm assumption, which is insecure in the quantum era. In this paper, we first formalize the consistency of tracing key of the AIBET scheme to ensure that no adversary can obtain information with the use of wrong tracing keys. Subsequently, we present a generic formulation concept that can be used to transform structure-specific lattice-based anonymous IBE schemes into an AIBET scheme. Finally, we apply this concept to Katsumata and Yamada's compact anonymous IBE scheme (Asiacrypt'16) to obtain the first quantum-resistant AIBET scheme that is secure under the ring learning with errors assumption.
Protecting secrets is a key challenge in our contemporary information-based era. In common situations, however, revealing secrets appears unavoidable, for instance, when identifying oneself in a bank to retrieve money. In turn, this may have highly undesirable consequences in the unlikely, yet not unrealistic, case where the bank’s security gets compromised. This naturally raises the question of whether disclosing secrets is fundamentally necessary for identifying oneself, or more generally for proving a statement to be correct. Developments in computer science provide an elegant solution via the concept of zero-knowledge proofs: a prover can convince a verifier of the validity of a certain statement without facilitating the elaboration of a proof at all. In this work, we report the experimental realisation of such a zero-knowledge protocol involving two separated verifier-prover pairs. Security is enforced via the physical principle of special relativity, and no computational assumption (such as the existence of one-way functions) is required. Our implementation exclusively relies on off-the-shelf equipment and works at both short (60 m) and long distances (400 m) in about one second. This demonstrates the practical potential of multi-prover zero-knowledge protocols, promising for identification tasks and blockchain-based applications such as cryptocurrencies or smart contracts.
Key distribution protocols deal with generating, exchanging, and storing information (especially shared keys). In this paper, we compare three different types of protocols: classical, quantum key distribution, and blockchain-based protocols, with examples from each category, presenting the particularities and challenges of each one, including solutions and the impact of these protocols.
This paper studies zero-knowledge SNARKs for NP, where the prover incurs $O(N)$ finite field operations to prove the satisfiability of an $N$-sized R1CS instance. We observe that recent work of Bootle, Chiesa, and Groth (BCG, TCC 20) provides a polynomial commitment scheme that, when combined with the linear-time interactive proof system of Spartan (CRYPTO 20), yields linear-time SNARKs for R1CS. Specifically, for security parameter $\lambda$, and for an $N$-sized R1CS instance over a field of size $\exp(\lambda)$ and fixed $\epsilon > 0$, the prover incurs $O(N)$ finite field operations to produce a proof of size $O_\lambda(N^\epsilon)$ that can be verified in $O_\lambda(N^\epsilon)$---after a one-time preprocessing step, which requires $O(N)$ finite field operations. This reestablishes the main result of BCG. Arguably, our approach is conceptually simpler and more direct. Additionally, the polynomial commitment scheme that we distill from BCG is of independent interest; it improves over the prior state of the art by offering the first scheme where the time to commit and to prove an evaluation of a committed polynomial are both $O(N)$ finite field operations for an $N$-sized polynomial. We further observe that one can render the aforementioned SNARK zero knowledge and reduce the proof size and verifier time to polylogarithmic---while maintaining a linear-time prover---by outsourcing the verifier's work via one layer of proof composition with an existing zkSNARK as the ``outer'' proof system. A similar result was recently obtained by Bootle, Chiesa, and Liu (ePrint 2020/1527).
Nowadays, genomic sequencing has become much more affordable for many people and, thus, many people own their genomic data in a digital format. Having paid for genomic sequencing, they want to make use of their data for different tasks that are possible only using genomics, and they share their data with third parties to achieve these tasks, e.g., to find their relatives in a genomic database. As a consequence, more genomic data get collected worldwide. The upside of the data collection is that unique analyses on these data become possible. However, this raises privacy concerns because the genomic data uniquely identify their owner, contain sensitive data about his/her risk for getting particular diseases, and even sensitive information about his/her family members. In this paper, we introduce EPISODE - a highly efficient privacy-preserving protocol for Similar Sequence Queries (SSQs), which can be used for finding genetically similar individuals in an outsourced genomic database, i.e., securely aggregated from data of multiple institutions. Our SSQ protocol is based on the edit distance approximation by Asharov et al. (PETS'18), which we further optimize and extend to the outsourcing scenario. We improve their protocol by using more efficient building blocks and achieve a 5-6x run-time improvement compared to their work in the same two-party scenario. Recently, Cheng et al. (ASIACCS'18) introduced protocols for outsourced SSQs that rely on homomorphic encryption. Our new protocol outperforms theirs by more than factor 24000x in terms of run-time in the same setting and guarantees the same level of security. In addition, we show that our algorithm scales for practical database sizes by querying a database that contains up to a million short sequences within a few minutes, and a database with hundreds of whole-genome sequences containing 75 million alleles each within a few hours.
The Google Titan Security Key is a FIDO U2F hardware device proposed by Google (available since July 2018) as a two-factor authentication token to sign in to applications (e.g. your Google account). We present here a side-channel attack that targets the Google Titan Security Key’s secure element (the NXP A700X chip) by the observation of its local electromagnetic radiations during ECDSA signatures (the core cryptographic operation of the FIDO U2F protocol). This work shows that an attacker can clone a legitimate Google Titan Security Key. To understand the NXP ECDSA implementation, find a vulnerability and design a key-recovery attack, we had to make a quick stop on Rhea (NXP J3D081 JavaCard smartcard). Freely available on the web, this product looks very much like the NXP A700X chip and uses the same cryptographic library. Rhea, as an open JavaCard platform, gives us more control to study the ECDSA implementation. We could then show that the electromagnetic side-channel signal bears partial information about the ECDSA ephemeral key. The sensitive information is recovered with a non-supervised machine learning method and plugged into a customized lattice-based attack scheme. Finally, 4000 ECDSA observations were enough to recover the (known) secret key on Rhea and validate our attack process. It was then applied on the Google Titan Security Key with success (this time with 6000 observations) as we were able to extract the long term ECDSA private key linked to a FIDO U2F account created for the experiment. Cautionary Note: Two-factor authentication tokens (like FIDO U2F hardware devices) primary goal is to fight phishing attacks. Our attack requires physical access to the Google Titan Security Key, expensive equipment, custom software, and technical skills. Thus, as far as the work presented here goes, it is still safer to use your Google Titan Security Key or other impacted products as FIDO U2F two-factor authentication token to sign in to applications rather than not using one. Nevertheless, this work shows that the Google Titan Security Key (and other impacted products) would not avoid unnoticed security breach by attackers willing to put enough effort into it. Users that face such a threat should probably switch to other FIDO U2F hardware security keys, where no vulnerability has yet been discovered.
Electronic voting consists of the methods that use an electronic system in the process of recording, counting or transmitting votes. It is relatively a new concept used in the democratic processes and especially in the context of COVID19. It’s aim is to reduce errors and to improve the integrity of the election process. In this paper, we provide a review of the existing systems used in Europe. Initially, we mention the factors that influence the adoption of such systems at a large scale. We further describe the systems used in Russia (Moscow’s primary) and in Romania (for counting the ballots). These systems are analyzed in order to find out if they respect technical challenges such as verifiability, dependability, security, anonymity and trust.
Cramer and Shoup introduced at Eurocrypt’02 the concept of hash proof system, also designated as smooth projective hash functions. Since then, they have found several applications, from building CCA-2 encryption as they were initially created for, to being at the core of several authenticated key exchange or even allowing witness encryption. In the post-quantum setting, the very few candidates use a language based on ciphertexts to build their hash proof system. This choice seems to inherently introduce a gap, as some elements outside the language could not be distinguish from those in the language. This creates a lawless zone, where an adversary can possibly mount an undetectable attack, particularly problematic when trying to prove security in the UC framework. We show that this gap could be completely withdrawn using code-based cryptography. Starting from RQC, a candidate selected for the second round of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) post-quantum cryptography standardization project, we show how to build such a hash proof system from code-based cryptography and present a way, based on a proof of knowledge, to fully negate the gap. We propose two applications of our construction, a witness encryption scheme and a password authenticated key exchange (PAKE).
Recently, federated learning (FL) has been subject to both security and privacy attacks posing a dilemmatic challenge on the underlying algorithmic designs: On the one hand, FL is shown to be vulnerable to backdoor attacks that stealthily manipulate the global model output using malicious model updates, and on the other hand, FL is shown vulnerable to inference attacks by a malicious aggregator inferring information about clients' data from their model updates. Unfortunately, existing defenses against these attacks are insufficient and mitigating both attacks at the same time is highly challenging because while defeating backdoor attacks requires the analysis of model updates, protection against inference attacks prohibits access to the model updates to avoid information leakage. In this work, we introduce FLGUARD, a novel in-depth defense for FL that tackles this challenge. To mitigate backdoor attacks, it applies a multilayered defense by using a Model Filtering layer to detect and reject malicious model updates and a Poison Elimination layer to eliminate any effect of a remaining undetected weak manipulation. To impede inference attacks, we build private FLGUARD that securely evaluates the FLGUARD algorithm under encryption using sophisticated secure computation techniques. We extensively evaluate FLGUARD against state-of-the-art backdoor attacks on several datasets and applications, including image classification, word prediction, and IoT intrusion detection. We show that FLGUARD can entirely remove backdoors with a negligible effect on accuracy and that private FLGUARD is practical.
Post-quantum cryptography (PQC) is a trend that has a deserved NIST status, and which aims to be resistant to quantum computer attacks like Shor and Grover algorithms. NIST is currently leading the third-round search of a viable set of standards, all based on traditional approaches as code-based, lattice-based, multi quadratic-based, or hash-based cryptographic protocols [1]. We choose to follow an alternative way of replacing all numeric field arithmetic with GF(2^8) field operations [2]. By doing so, it is easy to implement R-propped asymmetric systems as the present paper shows [3,4]. Here R stands for Rijndael as we work over the AES field. This approach yields secure post-quantum protocols since the resulting multiplicative monoid is immune against quantum algorithms and resist classical linearization attacks like Tsaban’s Algebraic Span [5] or Roman’kov linearization attacks [6]. The Burmester-Desmedt (B-D) conference key distribution protocol [7] has been proved to be secure against passive adversaries if the computational Diffie-Hellman problem remains hard. The authors refer that the proposed scheme could also be secure against active adversaries under the same assumptions as before if an authentication step is included to foil attacks like MITM (man in the middle). Also, this protocol proved to be semantical secure against adaptative IND-CPA2 [8, 9] if the discrete log problem is intractable. We discuss the features of our present work and a practical way to include an authentication step. Classical and quantum security levels are also discussed. Finally, we present a numerical example of the proposed R-Propped protocol.
We study the notion of zero-knowledge secure against quantum polynomial-time verifiers (referred to as quantum zero-knowledge) in the concurrent composition setting. Despite being extensively studied in the classical setting, concurrent composition in the quantum setting has hardly been studied. We initiate a formal study of concurrent quantum zero-knowledge. Our results are as follows: - Bounded Concurrent QZK for NP and QMA: Assuming post-quantum one-way functions, there exists a quantum zero-knowledge proof system for NP in the bounded concurrent setting. In this setting, we fix a priori the number of verifiers that can simultaneously interact with the prover. Under the same assumption, we also show that there exists a quantum zero-knowledge proof system for QMA in the bounded concurrency setting. - Quantum Proofs of Knowledge: Assuming quantum hardness of learning with errors (QLWE), there exists a bounded concurrent zero-knowledge proof system for NP satisfying quantum proof of knowledge property. Our extraction mechanism simultaneously allows for extraction probability to be negligibly close to acceptance probability (extractability) and also ensures that the prover's state after extraction is statistically close to the prover's state after interacting with the verifier (simulatability). The seminal work of [Unruh EUROCRYPT'12], and all its followups, satisfied a weaker version of extractability property and moreover, did not achieve simulatability. Our result yields a proof of quantum knowledge system for QMA with better parameters than prior works.
Garg, Gentry and Halevi (GGH13) described the first candidate multilinear maps using ideal lattices. However, Hu and Jia recently presented an efficient attack on the GGH13 map, which breaks the multipartite key exchange (MPKE) and witness encryption (WE) based on GGH13. In this work, we describe a new variant of GGH13 using secret ring, which preserves the origin functionality of GGH13. The security of our variant depends upon the following new hardness problem. Given the determinant of the circular matrix of some element in a secret ring, the problem is to find this secret ring and reconstruct this element.
We revisit the so-called compressed oracle technique, introduced by Zhandry for analyzing quantum algorithms in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). This technique has proven to be very powerful for reproving known lower bound results, but also for proving new results that seemed to be out of reach before. Despite being very useful, it is however still quite cumbersome to actually employ the compressed oracle technique. To start off with, we offer a concise yet mathematically rigorous exposition of the compressed oracle technique. We adopt a more abstract view than other descriptions found in the literature, which allows us to keep the focus on the relevant aspects. Our exposition easily extends to the parallel-query QROM, where in each query-round the considered quantum oracle algorithm may make several queries to the QROM in parallel. This variant of the QROM allows for a more fine-grained query-complexity analysis of quantum oracle algorithms. Our main technical contribution is a framework that simplifies the use of (the parallel-query generalization of) the compressed oracle technique for proving query complexity results. With our framework in place, whenever applicable, it is possible to prove quantum query complexity lower bounds by means of purely classical reasoning. More than that, we show that, for typical examples, the crucial classical observations that give rise to the classical bounds are sufficient to conclude the corresponding quantum bounds. We demonstrate this on a few examples, recovering known results (like the optimality of parallel Grover), but also obtaining new results (like the optimality of parallel BHT collision search). Our main application is to prove hardness of finding a $q$-chain, i.e., a sequence $x_0,x_1,\ldots,x_q$ with the property that $x_i = H(x_{i-1})$ for all $1 \leq i \leq q$, with fewer than $q$ parallel queries. The above problem of producing a hash chain is of fundamental importance in the context of proofs of sequential work. Indeed, as a concrete application of our new bound, we prove that the ``Simple Proofs of Sequential Work" proposed by Cohen and Pietrzak remain secure against quantum attacks. Such a proof is not simply a matter of plugging in our new bound; the entire protocol needs to be analyzed in the light of a quantum attack, and substantial additional work is necessary. Thanks to our framework, this can now be done with purely classical reasoning.
A tropical version of Stickel’s key exchange protocol was suggested by Grigoriev and Sphilrain [2] and successfully attacked by Kotov and Ushakov [5]. We suggest some modifications of this scheme that use commuting matrices in tropical algebra and discuss some possibilities of attacks on these new modifications. We suggest some simple heuristic attacks on one of our new protocols, and then we generalize the Kotov and Ushakov attack on Stickel’s protocol and discuss the application of that generalised attack to all our new protocols
Human mobility is undisputedly one of the critical factors in infectious disease dynamics. Until a few years ago, researchers had to rely on static data to model human mobility, which was then combined with a transmission model of a particular disease resulting in an epidemiological model. Recent works have consistently been showing that substituting the static mobility data with mobile phone data leads to significantly more accurate models. While prior studies have exclusively relied on a mobile network operator’s subscribers’ aggregated data, it may be preferable to contemplate aggregated mobility data of infected individuals only. Clearly, naively linking mobile phone data with infected individuals would massively intrude privacy. This research aims to develop a solution that reports the aggregated mobile phone location data of infected individuals while still maintaining compliance with privacy expectations. To achieve privacy, we use homomorphic encryption, zero-knowledge proof techniques, and differential privacy. Our protocol’s open-source implementation can process eight million subscribers in one and a half hours. Additionally, we provide a legal analysis of our solution with regards to the EU General Data Protection Regulation.
We seek constructions of general-purpose immunizers that take arbitrary cryptographic primitives, and transform them into ones that withstand a powerful “malicious but proud” adversary, who attempts to break security by possibly subverting the implementation of all algorithms (including the immunizer itself!), while trying not to be detected. This question is motivated by the recent evidence of cryptographic schemes being intentionally weakened, or designed together with hidden backdoors, e.g., with the scope of mass surveillance. Our main result is a subversion-secure immunizer in the plain model, that works for a fairly large class of deterministic primitives, i.e. cryptoschemes where a secret (but tamperable) random source is used to generate the keys and the public parameters, whereas all other algorithms are deterministic. The immunizer relies on an additional independent source of public randomness, which is used to sample a public seed. Assuming the public source is untamperable, and that the subversion of the algorithms is chosen independently of the seed, we can instantiate our immunizer from any one-way function. In case the subversion is allowed to depend on the seed, and the public source is still untamperable, we obtain an instantiation from collision-resistant hash functions. In the more challenging scenario where the public source is also tamperable, we additionally need to assume that the initial cryptographic primitive has sub-exponential security. Previous work in the area only obtained subversion-secure immunization for very restricted classes of primitives, often in weaker models of subversion and using random oracles.
Though the multilinear maps have many cryptographic applications, secure and efficient construction of such maps is an open problem. Many multilinear maps like GGH, GGH15, CLT, and CLT15 have been and are being proposed, while none of them is both secure and efficient. The construction of some multilinear maps is based on the Graded Encoding Scheme (GES), where, the necessity of announcing zero-testing parameter and encoding of zero has destroyed the security of the multilinear map. Attempt is made to propose a new GES, where, instead of encoding an element, the users can obtain the encoding of an associated but unknown random element. In this new setting, there is no need to publish the encodings of zero and one. This new GES provides the actual functionality of the usual GES and can be applied in constructing a secure and efficient multilinear map and a multi-party non-interactive key exchange (MP-NIKE) scheme. We also improve the MP-NIKE scheme and turn it into an ID-based MP-NIKE scheme.
Machine learning is an important tool for analyzing large data sets, but its use on sensitive data may be limited by regulation. One solution to this problem is to perform machine learning tasks on encrypted data using homomorphic encryption, which enables arbitrary computation on encrypted data. We take a fresh look at one specific task: training a logistic regression model on encrypted data. The most important factor in the efficiency of a solution is the multiplicative depth of the homomorphic circuit. Two prior works have given circuits with multiplicative depth of five per training iteration. We optimize one of these solutions, by Han et al. [Han+18], and give a circuit with half the multiplicative depth per iteration on average, which allows us to perform twice as many training iterations in the same amount of time. In the process of improving the state-of-the-art circuit for this task, we identify general techniques to improve homomorphic circuit design for two broad classes of algorithms: iterative algorithms, and algorithms based on linear algebra over real numbers. First, we formalize the encoding scheme from [Han+18] for encoding linear algebra objects as plaintexts in the CKKS homomorphic encryption scheme. We also show how to use this encoding to homomorphically compute many basic linear algebra operations, including novel operations not discussed in prior work. This “toolkit” is generic, and can be used in any application based on linear algebra. Second, we demonstrate how generic compiler techniques for loop optimization can be used to reduce the multiplicative depth of iterative algorithms.
Gohr improved attacks on 11-round Speck32/64 using deep learning [17] at Crypto 2019, which is the first work of neural aided cryptanalysis. But we find that the key recovery attack model proposed by Gohr is limited by several properties. It relies heavily on the neutral bit which doesn’t always exist in the attacked cipher. Besides, the data complexity, computation complexity, and success rate can only be estimated through the practical attack. In this paper, we propose a neural aided statistical attack that can be as generic as the differential cryptanalysis. It has no special requirements about the attacked cipher and allows us to estimate the theoretical complexities and success rate. For reducing the key space to be searched, we propose a Bit Sensitivity Test to identify which ciphertext bit is informative. Then specific key bits can be recovered by building neural distinguishers on related ciphertext bits. Applications to round reduced Speck32/64, Speck48/72, Speck48/96, DES prove the correctness and superiorities of our neural aided statistical attack.
This paper makes a comprehensive comparison of the efficiencies of vectorized implementations of Kummer lines and Montgomery curves at various security levels. For the comparison, nine Kummer lines are considered, out of which eight are new, and new assembly implementations of all nine Kummer lines have been made. Seven previously proposed Montgomery curves are considered and new vectorized assembly implementations have been made for five of them. Our comparisons show that for all security levels, Kummer lines are consistently faster than Montgomery curves, though the speed-up gap is not much.
The term permissionless has established itself within the context of blockchain and distributed ledger research to characterize protocols and systems that exhibit similar properties to Bitcoin. However, the notion of what is meant by permissionlessness is often vague or left implicit within the various literature, rendering it imprecise and hard to compare. We hereby shed light onto this topic by revising research that either incorporates or defines the term permissionless and systematically expose the properties and characteristics that its utilization intends to capture. Based on this review, we highlight current shortcomings and blind spots within the available definitions. In particular, the ability to freely perform transactions between users is often not adequately incorporated and different actor roles are left unspecified. Furthermore, the topics of privacy and governance appear to be largely overlooked.
In this paper we propose new techniques related to division property. We describe for the first time a practical algorithm for computing the propagation tables of 16-bit Super-Sboxes, increasing the precision of the division property by removing a lot of false division trails. We also improve the complexity of the procedure introduced by Lambin et al. (Design, Codes and Cryptography, 2020) to extend a cipher with linear mappings and show how to decrease the number of transitions to look for. While search procedures for integral distinguishers most often rely on MILP or SAT solvers for their ease of programming the propagation constraints, such generic solvers can only handle small 4/8-bit Sboxes. Thus we developed an ad-hoc tool handling larger Sboxes and all the improvements described in the paper. As a result, we found new integral distinguishers on SKINNY-64, HIGHT and Midori-64.
Fast Near collision attacks on the stream ciphers Grain v1 and A5/1 were presented at Eurocrypt 2018 and Asiacrypt 2019 respectively. They use the fact that the entire internal state can be split into two parts so that the second part can be recovered from the first one which can be found using the keystream prefix and some guesses of the key materials. In this paper we reevaluate the complexity of these attacks and show that actually they are inferior to previously known results. Basically, we show that their complexity is actually much higher and we point out the main problems of these papers based on information theoretic ideas. We also check that some distributions do not have the predicted entropy loss claimed by the authors. Checking cryptographic attacks with galactic complexity is difficult in general. In particular, as these attacks involve many steps it is hard to identify precisely where the attacks are flawed. But for the attack against A5/1, it could have been avoided if the author had provided a full experiment of its attack since the overall claimed complexity was lower than 232 in both time and memory
In this paper we describe a new tool to search for boomerang distinguishers. One limitation of the MILP model of Liu et al. is that it handles only one round for the middle part while Song et al. have shown that dependencies could affect much more rounds, for instance up to 6 rounds for SKINNY. Thus we describe a new approach to turn an MILP model to search for truncated characteristics into an MILP model to search for truncated boomerang characteristics automatically handling the middle rounds. We then show a new CP model to search for the best possible instantiations to identify good boomerang distinguishers. Finally we systematized the method initiated by Song et al. to precisely compute the probability of a boomerang. As a result, we found many new boomerang distinguishers up to 24 rounds in the TK3 model. In particular, we improved by a factor $2^{30}$ the probability of the best known distinguisher against 18-round SKINNY-128/256.
To maintain the secure information sharing among vehicles in the Internet of Vehicles, various message authentication schemes were proposed. Recently, Sutrala et al. proposed a conditional privacy preserving authentication scheme (``On the Design of Conditional Privacy Preserving Batch Verification-Based Authentication Scheme for Internet of Vehicles Deployment,'' IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 5535-5548, May 2020.) to against various potential attacks. However, our observations show that, contrary to what is claimed, the scheme is insecure. Any (malicious) vehicle can forge signature for any message, which can be validated successfully and cannot be traceable. Our observations also show that, the security proof based on the standard random oracle model is wrong.
This paper presents a new protocol for solving the private heavy-hitters problem. In this problem, there are many clients and a small set of data-collection servers. Each client holds a private bitstring. The servers want to recover the set of all popular strings, without learning anything else about any client’s string. A web-browser vendor, for instance, can use our protocol to figure out which homepages are popular, without learning any user’s homepage. We also consider the simpler private subset-histogram problem, in which the servers want to count how many clients hold strings in a particular set without revealing this set to the clients. Our protocols use two data-collection servers and, in a protocol run, each client send sends only a single message to the servers. Our protocols protect client privacy against arbitrary misbehavior by one of the servers and our approach requires no public- key cryptography (except for secure channels), nor general-purpose multiparty computation. Instead, we rely on incremental distributed point functions, a new cryptographic tool that allows a client to succinctly secret-share the labels on the nodes of an exponentially large binary tree, provided that the tree has a single non-zero path. Along the way, we develop new general tools for providing malicious security in applications of distributed point functions. A limitation of our heavy-hitters protocol is that it reveals to the servers slightly more information than the set of popular strings itself. We precisely define and quantify this leakage and explain how to ameliorate its effects. In an experimental evaluation with two servers on opposite sides of the U.S., the servers can find the 200 most popular strings among a set of 400,000 client-held 256-bit strings in 54 minutes. Our protocols are highly parallelizable. We estimate that with 20 physical machines per logical server, our protocols could compute heavy hitters over ten million clients in just over one hour of computation.
Black-box separations have been successfully used to identify the limits of a powerful set of tools in cryptography, namely those of black-box reductions. They allow proving that a large set of techniques are not capable of basing one primitive $\mathcal{P}$ on another $\mathcal{Q}$. Such separations, however, do not say anything about the power of the combination of primitives $\mathcal{Q}_1,\mathcal{Q}_2$ for constructing $\mathcal{P}$, even if $\mathcal{P}$ cannot be based on $\mathcal{Q}_1$ or $\mathcal{Q}_2$ alone. By introducing and formalizing the notion of black-box uselessness, we develop a framework that allows us to make such conclusions. At an informal level, we call primitive $\mathcal{Q}$ black-box useless (BBU) for primitive $\mathcal{P}$ if $\mathcal{Q}$ cannot help constructing $\mathcal{P}$ in a black-box way, even in the presence of another primitive $\mathcal{Z}$. This is formalized by saying that $\mathcal{Q}$ is BBU for $\mathcal{P}$ if for any auxiliary primitive $\mathcal{Z}$, whenever there exists a black-box construction of $\mathcal{P}$ from $(\mathcal{Q},\mathcal{Z})$, then there must already also exist a black-box construction of $\mathcal{P}$ from $\mathcal{Z}$ alone. We also formalize various other notions of black-box uselessness, and consider in particular the setting of efficient black-box constructions when the number of queries to $\mathcal{Q}$ is below a threshold. Impagliazzo and Rudich (STOC'89) initiated the study of black-box separations by separating key agreement from one-way functions. We prove a number of initial results in this direction, which indicate that one-way functions are perhaps also black-box useless for key agreement. In particular, we show that OWFs are black-box useless in any construction of key agreement in either of the following settings: (1) the key agreement has perfect correctness and one of the parties calls the OWF a constant number of times; (2) the key agreement consists of a single round of interaction (as in Merkle-type protocols). We conjecture that OWFs are indeed black-box useless for general key agreement protocols. We also show that certain techniques for proving black-box separations can be lifted to the uselessness regime. In particular, we show that known lower bounds for assumptions behind black-box constructions of indistinguishability obfuscation (IO) can be extended to derive black-box uselessness of a variety of primitives for obtaining (approximately correct) IO. These results follow the so-called "compiling out" technique, which we prove to imply black-box uselessness. Eventually, we study the complementary landscape of black-box uselessness, namely black-box helpfulness. Formally, we call primitive $\mathcal{Q}$ black-box helpful (BBH) for $\mathcal{P}$, if there exists an auxiliary primitive $\mathcal{Z}$ such that there exists a black-box construction of $\mathcal{P}$ from $(\mathcal{Q},\mathcal{Z})$, but there exists no black-box construction of $\mathcal{P}$ from $\mathcal{Z}$ alone. We put forth the conjecture that one-way functions are black-box helpful for building collision-resistant hash functions. We define two natural relaxations of this conjecture, and prove that both of these conjectures are implied by a natural conjecture regarding random permutations equipped with a collision finder oracle, as defined by Simon (Eurocrypt'98). This conjecture may also be of interest in other contexts, such as hardness amplification.
In recent years, numerous attacks have appeared that aim to steal secret information from their victim, using the power side channel vector, without direct physical access and using instead, resources that are present inside the victim environment. These attacks are called Remote Power Attacks or Remote Power Analysis. However, there is no unified definition about the limitations that a power attack requires to be defined as remote. This paper aims to propose a unified definition and threat model to clearly differentiate remote power attacks from non-remote ones. Additionally, we collect the main remote power attacks performed so far from the literature, and the principal proposed countermeasures to avoid them. The search of such countermeasures denoted a clear gap in order to find technical details on how to prevent remote power attacks. Thus, the academic community must face an important challenge to avoid this emerging threat, given the clear room for improvement that should be addressed in terms of defense and security of devices that work with private information.
We describe and illustrate the local neighbourhoods of vertices and edges in the (2, 2)-isogeny graph of principally polarized abelian surfaces, considering the action of automorphisms. Our diagrams are intended to build intuition for number theorists and cryptographers investigating isogeny graphs in dimension/genus 2, and the superspecial isogeny graph in particular.
We investigate special structures due to automorphisms in isogeny graphs of principally polarized abelian varieties, and abelian surfaces in particular. We give theoretical and experimental results on the spectral and statistical properties of (2, 2)-isogeny graphs of superspecial abelian surfaces, including stationary distributions for random walks, bounds on eigenvalues and diameters, and a proof of the connectivity of the Jacobian subgraph of the (2, 2)-isogeny graph. Our results improve our understanding of the performance and security of some recently-proposed cryptosystems, and are also a concrete step towards a better understanding of general superspecial isogeny graphs in arbitrary dimension.
The problem of solving explicitly the equation $P_a(X):=X^{q+1}+X+a=0$ over the finite field $\GF{Q}$, where $Q=p^n$, $q=p^k$ and $p$ is a prime, arises in many different contexts including finite geometry, the inverse Galois problem \cite{ACZ2000}, the construction of difference sets with Singer parameters \cite{DD2004}, determining cross-correlation between $m$-sequences \cite{DOBBERTIN2006} and to construct error correcting codes \cite{Bracken2009}, cryptographic APN functions \cite{BTT2014,Budaghyan-Carlet_2006}, designs \cite{Tang_2019}, as well as to speed up the index calculus method for computing discrete logarithms on finite fields \cite{GGGZ2013,GGGZ2013+} and on algebraic curves \cite{M2014}. Subsequently, in \cite{Bluher2004,HK2008,HK2010,BTT2014,Bluher2016,KM2019,CMPZ2019,MS2019,KCM19}, the $\GF{Q}$-zeros of $P_a(X)$ have been studied. In \cite{Bluher2004}, it was shown that the possible values of the number of the zeros that $P_a(X)$ has in $\GF{Q}$ is $0$, $1$, $2$ or $p^{\gcd(n, k)}+1$. Some criteria for the number of the $\GF{Q}$-zeros of $P_a(x)$ were found in \cite{HK2008,HK2010,BTT2014,KM2019,MS2019}. However, while the ultimate goal is to explicit all the $\GF{Q}$-zeros, even in the case $p=2$, it was solved only under the condition $\gcd(n, k)=1$ \cite{KM2019}. In this article, we discuss this equation without any restriction on $p$ and $\gcd(n,k)$. In \cite{KCM19}, for the cases of one or two $\GF{Q}$-zeros, explicit expressions for these rational zeros in terms of $a$ were provided, but for the case of $p^{\gcd(n, k)}+1$ $\GF{Q}-$ zeros it was remained open to explicitly compute the zeros. This paper solves the remained problem, thus now the equation $X^{p^k+1}+X+a=0$ over $\GF{p^n}$ is completely solved for any prime $p$, any integers $n$ and $k$.
Compression is widely used in Internet communication to save communication time and bandwidth. Recently invented by Jarek Duda asymmetric numeral system (ANS) offers an improved efficiency and a close to optimal compression. The ANS algorithm has been deployed by major IT companies such as Facebook, Google and Apple. Compression by itself does not provide any security (such as confidentiality or authentication of transmitted data). An obvious solution to this problem is an encryption of compressed bitstream. However, it requires two algorithms: one for compression and the other for encryption. In this work, we investigate natural properties of ANS that allow to incorporate authenticated encryption using as little cryptography as possible. We target low-level security communication such as transmission of data from IoT devices/sensors. In particular, we propose three solutions for joint compression and encryption (compcrypt). All of them use a pseudorandom bit generator (PRGB) based on lightweight stream ciphers. The first solution applies state jumps controlled by PRGB. The second one employs two ANS algorithms, where compression switches between the two. The switch is controlled by a PRGB bit. The third compcrypt modifies the encoding function of ANS depending on PRGB bits. Security and efficiency of the proposed compcrypt algorithms are evaluated.
Abstract: Off-chain is a common approach to deal with the scalability problem of blockchain networks. It enables users toexecute multiple payments without committing each of them to the blockchain by relying on predefined payment channels. Apair of users can employ a payment even without a direct channel between them, via routing the payment through off-chainchannels involving other intermediate users. Users together with the off-chain channels form a graph, known as the off-chainnetwork topology. The off-chain topology and the payment characteristics affect network performance such as the averagenumber of intermediate users a payment is routed through, the amount of fees, or channel capacities needed to successfullyroute payments. In this paper, we study two basic problems in off-chain network design. First, efficiently mapping users toan off-chain topology with a known structure. Second, constructing a topology of a bounded number of channels that canserve well users with associated payments. We design algorithms for both problems and evaluate them based on real datafrom Raiden, the off-chain extension for Ethereum. Keywors:
Abstract. With the growth of cloud computing, the need arises for Private Set Intersection (PSI) protocols that can operate on outsourced data and delegate computation to cloud servers. One limitation of existing delegated PSI protocols is that they are all designed for static data and do not allow efficient update on outsourced data. Another limitation is that they cannot efficiently support PSI among multiple clients, which is often needed in practice. This paper presents “Feather”, the first delegated PSI protocol that supports efficient data updates and scalable multi-party PSI computation on outsourced datasets. It lets clients independently prepare and upload their private data to the cloud once, then delegate the computation an unlimited number of times. The update operation has very low communication and computation complexity, and this is achieved without sacrificing PSI efficiency and security. Feather does not use public key cryptography, that makes it more scalable. We have implemented a prototype and compared the concrete performance against the state of the art. The evaluation indicates that Feather does achieve better performance in both update and PSI computation.
Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is an anonymous signature scheme, which allows the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), a small chip embedded in a host computer, to attest to the state of the host system, while preserving the privacy of the user. DAA provides two signature modes: fully anonymous signatures and pseudonymous signatures. One main goal of designing DAA schemes is to reduce the TPM signing workload as much as possible, as the TPM has only limited resources. In an optimal DAA scheme, the signing workload on the TPM will be no more than that required for a normal signature like ECSchnorr. To date, no scheme has achieved the optimal signing efficiency for both signature modes. In this paper, we propose the first DAA scheme which achieves the optimal TPM signing efficiency for both signature modes. In this scheme, the TPM takes only a single exponentiation to generate a signature, and this single exponentiation can be pre-computed. Our scheme can be implemented using the existing TPM 2.0 commands, and thus is compatible with the TPM 2.0 specification. We benchmarked the TPM 2.0 commands needed for three DAA use cases on an Infineon TPM 2.0 chip, and also implemented the host signing and verification algorithm for our scheme on a laptop with 1.80GHz Intel Core i7-8550U CPU. Our experimental results show that our DAA scheme obtains a total signing time of about 144 ms for either of two signature modes (compared to an online signing time of about 65 ms). Based on our benchmark results for the pseudonymous signature mode, our scheme is roughly 2x (resp., 5x) faster than the existing DAA schemes supported by TPM 2.0 in terms of total (resp., online) signing efficiency. In addition, our DAA scheme supports selective attribute disclosure, which can satisfy more application require- ments. We also extend our DAA scheme to support signature-based revocation and to guarantee privacy against subverted TPMs. The two extended DAA schemes keep the TPM signing efficiency optimal for both of two signa- ture modes, and outperform existing related schemes in terms of signing performance.
Machine learning tools have illustrated their potential in many significant sectors such as healthcare and finance, to aide in deriving useful inferences. The sensitive and confidential nature of the data, in such sectors, raises natural concerns for the privacy of data. This motivated the area of Privacy-preserving Machine Learning (PPML) where privacy of the data is guaranteed. Typically, ML techniques require large computing power, which leads clients with limited infrastructure to rely on the method of Secure Outsourced Computation (SOC). In SOC setting, the computation is outsourced to a set of specialized and powerful cloud servers and the service is availed on a pay-per-use basis. In this work, we explore PPML techniques in the SOC setting for widely used ML algorithms-- Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, and Neural Networks. We propose BLAZE, a blazing fast PPML framework in the three server setting tolerating one malicious corruption over a ring ($\mathbb{Z}_{2^{\ell}}$). BLAZE achieves the stronger security guarantee of fairness (all honest servers get the output whenever the corrupt server obtains the same). Leveraging an input-independent preprocessing phase, BLAZE has a fast input-dependent online phase relying on efficient PPML primitives such as: (i) A dot product protocol for which the communication in the online phase is independent of the vector size, the first of its kind in the three server setting; (ii) A method for truncation that shuns evaluating expensive circuit for Ripple Carry Adders (RCA) and achieves a constant round complexity. This improves over the truncation method of ABY3 (Mohassel et al., CCS 2018) that uses RCA and consumes a round complexity that is of the order of the depth of RCA (which is the same as the underlying ring size). An extensive benchmarking of BLAZE for the aforementioned ML algorithms over a 64-bit ring in both WAN and LAN settings shows massive improvements over ABY3. Concretely, we observe improvements up to $333\times$ for Linear Regression, $53\times$ for Logistic Regression and $276\times$ for Neural Networks over WAN. Similarly, we show improvements up to $2610\times$ for Linear Regression, $54\times$ for Logistic Regression and $278\times$for Neural Networks over LAN.
We present passive attacks against CKKS, the homomorphic encryption scheme for arithmetic on approximate numbers presented at Asiacrypt 2017. The attack is both theoretically efficient (running in expected polynomial time) and very practical, leading to complete key recovery with high probability and very modest running times. We implemented and tested the attack against major open source homomorphic encryption libraries, including HEAAN, SEAL, HElib and PALISADE, and when computing several functions that often arise in applications of the CKKS scheme to machine learning on encrypted data, like mean and variance computations, and approximation of logistic and exponential functions using their Maclaurin series. The attack shows that the traditional formulation of IND-CPA security (or indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks) achieved by CKKS does not adequately capture security against passive adversaries when applied to approximate encryption schemes, and that a different, stronger definition is required to evaluate the security of such schemes. We provide a solid theoretical basis for the security evaluation of homomorphic encryption on approximate numbers (against passive attacks) by proposing new definitions, that naturally extend the traditional notion of INDCPA security to the approximate computation setting. We propose both indistinguishability-based and simulation-based variants, as well as restricted versions of the definitions that limit the order and number of adversarial queries (as may be enforced by some applications). We prove implications and separations among different definitional variants, and discuss possible modifications to CKKS that may serve as a countermeasure to our attacks.
Witness encryption (WE) was introduced by Garg et al. (STOC'13). A WE scheme is defined for some NP language $L$ and lets a sender encrypt messages relative to instances $x$. A ciphertext for $x$ can be decrypted using $w$ witnessing $x\in L$, but hides the message if $x\notin L$. Garg et al. construct WE from multilinear maps and give another construction (FOCS'13) using indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) for encryption. Due to the reliance on such heavy tools, WE can currently hardly be implemented on powerful hardware and will unlikely be realizable on constrained devices like smart cards any time soon. We construct a WE scheme where \emph{encryption} is done by simply computing a Naor-Yung ciphertext (two CPA encryptions and a NIZK proof). To achieve this, our scheme has a setup phase, which outputs public parameters containing an obfuscated circuit (only required for decryption), two encryption keys and a common reference string (used for encryption). This setup need only be run once, and the parameters can be used for arbitrary many encryptions. Our scheme can also be turned into a \emph{functional} WE scheme, where a message is encrypted w.r.t. a statement and a function $f$, and decryption with a witness $w$ yields $f(m,w)$. Our construction is inspired by the functional encryption scheme by Garg et al. and we prove (selective) security assuming iO and statistically simulation-sound NIZK. We give a construction of the latter in bilinear groups and combining it with ElGamal encryption, our ciphertexts are of size $1.3$ kB at a 128-bit security level and can be computed on a smart card.
We introduce formal definitions for deniability in group chats by extending a pre-existing model that did not have this property. We then introduce “epochal signatures” as an almost drop-in replacement for signatures, which can be used to make certain undeniable group-chats deniable by just performing that replacement. Following that we provide a practical epochal signature scheme and prove its security.
We revisit some well-known cryptographic problems in a black box modular ring model of computation. This model allows us to compute with black box access to the ring $\mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z}$. We develop new generic ring algorithms to recover $m$ even if it is unknown. At the end, Maurer's generic algorithm allows to recover an element from its black box representation. However, we avoid Maurer's idealized model with CDH oracle for the multiplication in the hidden ring by introducing a new representation compatible with ring operations. An element is encoded by its action over the factor basis. Consequently, we can multiply two elements with classical descent computations in sieving algorithms. As the algorithms we propose work without using an expensive linear algebra computation at the end, even though they manipulate large sparse matrices, we can exploit a high-level of parallelism. Then, we consider general groups such as imaginary quadratic class group and the Jacobian of a hyperelliptic curve, and obtain new methods for group order computation. The repeated squaring problem and the adaptive root problem used in the construction of Verifiable Delay Functions are particularly easy to solve in the black box modular ring, the high degree of parallelism provided by our method allows a reduction in the time to solve them. We improve the smoothing time, and as a result, we break Verifiable Delay Functions and factorize weak keys with lower Area-Time cost. Finally, we show new AT costs for computing a discrete logarithm over an adversarial basis in finite fields.
At the IEEE Workshop on Information Forensics and Security in 2012, Veugen introduced two ways of improving a well-known secure comparison protocol by Damg{\aa}rd, Geisler and Kr{\o}igaard, which uses additively homomorphic encryption. The first new protocol reduced the computational effort of one party by roughly $50\%$. The second one showed how to achieve perfect security towards one party without additional costs, whereas the original version with encrypted inputs only achieved statistical security. However, the second protocol contained a mistake, leading to incorrect outputs in some cases. We show how to correct this mistake, without increasing its computational complexity.
We study non-interactive arguments of knowledge (AoKs) for commitments in groups of hidden order. We provide protocols whereby a Prover can demonstrate certain properties of and relations between committed sets/multisets, with succinct proofs that are publicly verifiable against the constant-sized commitments. In particular, we provide AoKs for the disjointness of committed sets/multisets in cryptographic accumulators, with a view toward applications to verifiably outsourcing data storage and sharded stateless blockchains. Recent work ([DGS20]) suggests that the hidden order groups need to be substantially larger in size that previously thought, in order to ensure the desired security level. Thus, in order to keep the communication complexity between the Prover and the the Verifier to a minimum, we have designed the protocols so that the proofs entail a constant number of group elements, independent of the number of the committed sets/multisets rather than just independent of the sizes of these sets/multisets. If the underlying group of hidden order is an appropriate imaginary quadratic class group or a genus three Jacobian, the argument systems are transparent. Furthermore, since all challenges are public coin, the protocols can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic. We build on the techniques from [BBF19] and [Wes18].
We observe that all previously known lattice-based blind signature schemes contain subtle flaws in their security proofs (e.g., R\"uckert, ASIACRYPT '08) or can be attacked (e.g., BLAZE by Alkadri et al., FC '20). Motivated by this, we revisit the problem of constructing blind signatures from standard lattice assumptions. We propose a new three-round lattice-based blind signature scheme whose security can be proved, in the random oracle model, from the standard SIS assumption. Our starting point is a modified version of the (insecure) BLAZE scheme, which itself is based Lyubashevsky's three-round identification scheme combined with a new aborting technique to reduce the correctness error. Our proof builds upon and extends the recent modular framework for blind signatures of Hauck, Kiltz, and Loss (EUROCRYPT '19). It also introduces several new techniques to overcome the additional challenges posed by the correctness error which is inherent to all lattice-based constructions. While our construction is mostly of theoretical interest, we believe it to be an important stepping stone for future works in this area.
Nonlinear diffusion layers are less studied in cryptographic literature, up to now. In 2018, Liu, Rijmen and Leander studied nonlinear non-MDS diffusion layers and mentioned some advantages of them. As they stated, nonlinear diffusion layers could make symmetric ciphers more resistant against statistical and algebraic cryptanalysis. In this paper, with the aid of some special maps over the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$, we examine nonlinear MDS mappings and present a family of $4 \times 4$ nonlinear MDS diffusion layers. Next, we determine the Walsh and differential spectrum as well as the algebraic degree of the proposed diffusion layers.
Zhang et al. recently proposed a lattice-based proxy-oriented identity-based encryption with keyword search (PO-IBEKS) at Information Sciences in 2019. They claimed that their scheme can resist insider keyword guessing attacks by preventing cloud server from generating ciphertext. In this note, we provide a cryptanalysis of their PO-IBEKS and demonstrate that their scheme cannot resist outsider/insider keyword guessing attacks, even though they satisfy unforgeability requirement. Furthermore, we uncover the root cause of the attack and provide a possible solution for Zhang et al.'s scheme to aid future designs of secure PO-IBEKS schemes.
Many web-based and mobile applications and services allow users to indicate their preferences regarding whether and how their personal information can be used or reused by the application itself, by the service provider, and/or by third parties. The number of possible configurations that constitute a user's preference profile can be overwhelming to a typical user. This report describes a practical, privacy-preserving technique for reducing the burden users face when specifying their preferences by offering users data-driven recommendations for fully-specified preference profiles based on their inputs for just a few settings. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by a browser-based prototype application that relies on secure multi-party computation and uses the web-compatible JIFF library as the backbone for managing communications between the client application and the recommendation service. The principal algorithms used for generating proposed preference profiles are $k$-means clustering (for privacy-preserving analysis of preference profile data across multiple users) and $k$-nearest neighbors (for selecting a proposed preference profile to recommend to the user).
In this paper, we introduce a distributed key generation (DKG) protocol with aggregatable and publicly-verifiable transcripts. Compared with prior publicly-verifiable approaches, our DKG reduces the size of the final transcript and the time to verify it from $O(n^2)$ to $O(n log(n))$, where $n$ denotes the number of parties. As compared with prior non-publicly-verifiable approaches, our DKG leverages gossip rather than all-to-all communication to reduce verification and communication complexity. We also revisit existing DKG security definitions, which are quite strong, and propose new and natural relaxations. As a result, we can prove the security of our aggregatable DKG as well as that of several existing DKGs, including the popular Pedersen variant. We show that, under these new definitions, these existing DKGs can be used to yield secure threshold variants of popular cryptosystems such as El-Gamal encryption and BLS signatures. We also prove that our DKG can be securely combined with a new efficient verifiable unpredictable function (VUF), whose security we prove in the random oracle model. % Finally, we experimentally evaluate our DKG and show that the per-party overheads scale linearly and are practical. For $64$ parties, it takes $71$ms to share and $359$ms to verify the overall transcript, while for $8192$ parties, it takes $8$s and $42.2$s respectively.
This study presents a method to perform low-latency modular multiplication operation based on both Montgomery and Ozturk methods. The design space exploration of the proposed method on a latest FPGA device is also given. Through series of experiments on the FPGA using an high-level synthesis tool, optimal parameter selection of the proposed method for the low-latency constraint is also presented for the proposed technique.
We present the first Ciphertext Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CP-ABE) scheme where access policies are expressed as arithmetic circuits. The idea is first introduced as a basic design based on the multilinear map. Then, two improved versions of that, with or without the property of hidden attributes, are introduced. We also define the concept of Hidden Result Attribute Based Encryption (HR-ABE) which means that the result of the arithmetic function is hidden from the users. We prove that the proposed schemes have adaptive security, under the assumption of the hardness of the (k-1)-Distance Decisional Diffie- Hellman problem.
Existing lattice signature schemes are much less efficient than encryption schemes due to the rejection sampling paradigm. We give a construction of comparable efficiency with lattice encryption that avoids sampling using structured secrets together with temporary keys. Structured secrets (and randoms) also improve existing lattice encryption schemes to nearly the same extreme efficiency. Our signature scheme allows the same parameters of any encryption schemes (a variation of the basic form is needed when the modulus is as small as 1-byte) and has comparable efficiency with our extreme encryption efficiency. For lightweight implementation, our techniques allow integrating of public-key encryption and signature in a simple circuit which only needs to do small integer additions as the main part of the computation.
In this paper, we present a multi-client quadratic functional encryption (MCQFE) scheme from function-hiding inner-product (FHIP). The main challenge in such construction is that all the clients require the access to the master secret key of the underlying FHIP scheme, which clearly breaches the security. To overcome this challenge, we present an efficient decentralized version of FHIP scheme of Lin (Crypto 16). This leads to a 2-step MCQFE (2-MCQFE) scheme. In a 2-step MCQFE scheme, the encryption phase is a (non-interactive) protocol among clients and a set of honest-but-curious authorities. More precisely, clients are the owner of messages and the master secret-key of the underlying FHIP is shared among authorities. In the first step, the client publishes a pre-ciphertext ``pct'' associated with its message. Then in the second step, each authority generates its share ``ct_i'' extracted from the pre-ciphertext. The public aggregation of these shares ``ct_i'' will generate the target ciphertext ``ct'' which then would be applied on the functional key ``sk_F'' to compute the quadratic functionality. The security model is strong enough to consider no trust among clients and authorities, and also the revelation of some secret keys (of clients or authorities) through corruptions. We instantiate our 2-MCQFE scheme and prove its security in the random-oracle model based on the SXDH assumption. Moreover, we show that its security holds as long as at least one of the authorities is not corrupted.
Multipartite secret sharing schemes are those that have multipartite access structures. The set of the participants in those schemes is divided into several parts, and all the participants in the same part play the equivalent role. One type of such access structure is the compartmented access structure. We propose an ideal and efficient compartmented multi-secret sharing scheme based on the linear homogeneous recurrence (LHR) relations. In the construction phase, the shared secrets are hidden in some terms of the linear homogeneous recurrence sequence. In the recovery phase, the shared secrets are obtained by solving those terms in which the shared secrets are hidden. When the global threshold is $t$, our scheme can reduce the computational complexity from $O(n^{t-1})$ to $O(n^{\max(t_i-1)}\log n)$, where $t_i<t$. The security of the proposed scheme is based on Shamir's threshold scheme. Moreover, it is efficient to share the multi-secret and to change the shared secrets in the proposed scheme. That is, the proposed scheme can improve the performances of the key management and the distributed system.
We show how to construct new multilinear maps from subexponentially secure indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) and (relatively) standard assumptions. In particular, we show how to construct multilinear maps with arbitrary predetermined degree of multilinearity where each of the following assumptions hold: SXDH, joint-SXDH, exponent-DDH and all other assumptions implied by them (including k-party-DDH, k-Lin and its variants). Our constructions almost identically achieve the full functionality of the “dream version” definition of multilinear maps as defined in the initial work of Garg et al. (Eurocrypt’13). Our work substantially extends a previous line of works including that of Albrecht et al. (TCC’16) and Farshim et al. (PKC’18), which showed how to build multilinear maps endowed with weaker assumptions (such as multilinear DDH and other related assumptions) from iO. Coupled with the recent work of Jain et al., which shows how to build iO from well-founded assumptions, and the recent work of Brakerski et al., which shows how to build iO from circular security assumptions, our work can be used to also build strong multilinear maps from such assumptions. This solves another long-standing open problem. Moreover, a number of recent works have shown how to build iO from multilinear maps endowed with hardness assumptions; one example would be the work of Lin and Tessaro (Crypto'17) which shows how to construct iO from subexponentially secure SXDH-hard multilinear maps and some (subexponentially secure) plausible assumptions. Coupled with any one of these constructions, our results here can be seen as formally proving the equivalence of iO and multilinear maps/graded encodings (modulo subexponential reductions and other relatively standard assumptions) for the first time.
In this manuscript, we review lattice-based public-key encryption with the keyword search scheme proposed by Zhang \textit{et al}. in IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing in 2019. We demonstrate that this scheme is insecure for inside keyword guess attacks, although Zhang \textit{et al.} demonstrated a secure proof.
Secure computation is a promising privacy enhancing technology, but it is often not scalable enough for data intensive applications. On the other hand, the use of sketches has gained popularity in data mining, because sketches often give rise to highly efficient and scalable sub-linear algorithms. It is natural to ask: what if we put secure computation and sketches together? We investigated the question and the findings are interesting: we can get security, we can get scalability, and somewhat unexpectedly, we can also get differential privacy -- for free. Our study started from building a secure computation protocol based on the Flajolet-Martin (FM) sketches, for solving the Private Distributed Cardinality Estimation (PDCE) problem, which is a fundamental problem with applications ranging from crowd tracking to network monitoring. The state of art protocol for PDCE (Fenske et al. CCS'17) is computationally expensive and not scalable enough to cope with big data applications, which prompted us to design a better protocol. Our further analysis revealed that if the cardinality to be estimated is large enough, our protocol can achieve $(\epsilon,\delta)$-differential privacy automatically, without requiring any additional manipulation of the output. The result signifies a new approach for achieving differential privacy that departs from the mainstream approach (i.e. adding noise to the result). Free differential privacy can be achieved because of two reasons: secure computation minimizes information leakage, and the intrinsic estimation variance of the FM sketch makes the output of our protocol uncertain. We further show that the result is not just theoretical: the minimal cardinality for differential privacy to hold is only $10^2-10^4$ for typical parameters.
Proof-carrying data (PCD) is a powerful cryptographic primitive that enables mutually distrustful parties to perform distributed computations that run indefinitely. Known approaches to construct PCD are based on succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) that have a succinct verifier or a succinct accumulation scheme for their proofs. In this paper we show how to obtain PCD without relying on SNARKs. We construct a PCD scheme given any non-interactive argument of knowledge (e.g., with linear-size proofs) that has a *split accumulation scheme*, which is a weak form of accumulation that we introduce. We additionally construct a transparent non-interactive argument of knowledge for R1CS whose accumulation is verifiable via a *constant number of group and field operations*. This leads, via the random oracle heuristic and our result above, to efficiency improvements for PCD. Along the way, we construct a split accumulation scheme for a simple polynomial commitment scheme based on Pedersen commitments. Our results are supported by a modular and efficient implementation.
The feasibility of bribing attacks on cryptocurrencies was first highlighted in 2016, with various new techniques and approaches having since been proposed. In this paper we extend the attack landscape by presenting a method, which we call Pay-To-Win (P2W), that is capable of facilitating trustless double-spend collusion across different blockchains. Moreover, our technique can also be used to specifically incentivize transaction exclusion or (re)ordering. Attacks using our approach are operated and financed out-of-band i.e., on a funding cryptocurrency, while the consequences are induced in a different target cryptocurrency. We describe a concrete instantiation of our P2W attack which is able to fund double-spending attacks accross different blockchains. For this, we choose Bitcoin as a target and Ethereum as a funding cryptocurrency. Our P2W attack is designed in a way that reimburses collaborators even in the case of an unsuccessful attack. Interestingly, this actually renders our approach approximately one order of magnitude cheaper than comparable bribing techniques (e.g., the whale attack). We demonstrate the technical feasibility of P2W attacks through publishing all artifacts of this paper, ranging from calculations for figures and tables to a fully functional implementation of our most powerful out-of-band attack, consisting of an Ethereum smart contract and a Python client.
A long standing question in the context of cryptocurrencies based on Nakamoto consensus is whether such constructions are incentive compatible, i.e., the intended properties of the system emerge from the appropriate utility model for participants. Bribing and other related attacks, such as front-running or Goldfinger attacks, aim to directly influence the incentives of actors within (or outside) of the targeted cryptocurrency system. The theoretical feasibility of bribing attacks on cryptocurrencies was first highlighted in 2016 by Bonneau, with various different techniques and approaches having since been proposed. Some of these attacks are designed to gain in-band profits, while others intend to break the mechanism design and render the cryptocurrency worthless. In this paper, we systematically expose the large but scattered body of research in this area which has accumulated over the years. We summarize these bribing attacks and similar techniques that leverage on programmatic execution and verification under the term algorithmic incentive manipulation (AIM) attacks, and show that the problem space is not yet fully explored. Based on our analysis we present several research gaps and opportunities that warrant further investigation. In particular, we highlight no- and near-fork attacks as a powerful, yet largely underestimated, AIM category that raises serious security concerns not only for smart contract platforms.
In Chen-Cramer Crypto 2006 paper \cite{cc} algebraic geometric secret sharing schemes were proposed such that the ``Fundamental Theorem in Information-Theoretically Secure Multiparty Computation" by Ben-Or, Goldwasser and Wigderson \cite{BGW88} and Chaum, Cr\'{e}peau and Damg{\aa}rd \cite{CCD88} can be established over constant-size base finite fields. These algebraic geometric secret sharing schemes defined by a curve of genus $g$ over a constant size finite field ${\bf F}_q$ is quasi-threshold in the following sense, any subset of $u \leq T-1$ players (non qualified) has no information of the secret and any subset of $u \geq T+2g$ players (qualified) can reconstruct the secret. It is natural to ask that how far from the threshold these quasi-threshold secret sharing schemes are? How many subsets of $u \in [T, T+2g-1]$ players can recover the secret or have no information of the secret? In this paper it is proved that almost all subsets of $u \in [T,T+g-1]$ players have no information of the secret and almost all subsets of $u \in [T+g,T+2g-1]$ players can reconstruct the secret when the size $q$ goes to the infinity and the genus satisfies $\lim \frac{g}{\sqrt{q}}=0$. Then algebraic geometric secretsharing schemes over large finite fields are asymptotically threshold in this case. We also analyze the case when the size $q$ of the base field is fixed and the genus goes to the infinity.
Ciet et al.(2006) proposed an elegant method for trading inversions for multiplications when computing [2] P+Q from two given points P and Q on elliptic curves of Weierstrass form. Motivated by their work, this paper proposes a fast algorithm for computing [4] P with only one inversion in affine coordinates. Our algorithm that requires 1I+ 8S+ 8M, is faster than two repeated doublings whenever the cost of one field inversion is more expensive than the cost of four field multiplications plus four field squarings (ie I> 4M+ 4S). It saves one field multiplication and one field squaring in comparison with the Sakai-Sakurai method (2001). Even better, for special curves that allow" a= 0"(or" b= 0") speedup, we obtain [4] P in affine coordinates using just 1I+ 5S+ 9M (or 1I+ 5S+ 6M, respectively).
ISO/IEC 9797-1 is an international standard for block-cipher-based Message Authentication Code (MAC). The current version ISO/IEC 9797-1:2011 specifies six single-pass CBC-like MAC structures that are capped at the birthday bound security. For a higher security that is beyond-birthday bound, it recommends to use the concatenation combiner of two single-pass MACs. In this paper, we reveal the invalidity of the suggestion, by presenting a birthday bound forgery attack on the concatenation combiner, which is essentially based on Joux’s multi-collision. Notably, our new forgery attack for the concatenation of two MAC Algorithm 1 with padding scheme 2 only requires 3 queries. Moreover, we look for patches by revisiting the development of ISO/IEC 9797-1 with respect to the beyond-birthday bound security. More specifically, we evaluate the XOR combiner of single-pass CBC-like MACs, which was used in previous version of ISO/IEC 9797-1.
The information security community has devoted substantial effort to the design, development, and universal deployment of strong encryption schemes that withstand search and seizure by computationally-powerful nation-state adversaries. In response, governments are increasingly turning to a different tactic: issuing subpoenas that compel people to decrypt devices themselves, under the penalty of contempt of court if they do not comply. Compelled decryption subpoenas sidestep questions around government search powers that have dominated the Crypto Wars and instead touch upon a different (and still unsettled) area of the law: how encryption relates to a person's right to silence and against self-incrimination. In this work, we provide a rigorous, composable definition of a critical piece of the law that determines whether cryptosystems are vulnerable to government compelled disclosure in the United States. We justify our definition by showing that it is consistent with prior court cases. We prove that decryption is often not compellable by the government under our definition. Conversely, we show that many techniques that bolster security overall can leave one more vulnerable to compelled disclosure. As a result, we initiate the study of protecting cryptographic protocols against the threat of future compelled disclosure. We find that secure multi-party computation is particularly vulnerable to this threat, and we design and implement new schemes that are provably resilient in the face of government compelled disclosure. We believe this work should influence the design of future cryptographic primitives and contribute toward the legal debates over the constitutionality of compelled decryption.
Hierarchical secret sharing is an important key management technique since it is specially customized for hierarchical organizations with different departments allocated with different privileges, such as the government agencies or companies. Hierarchical access structures have been widely adopted in secret sharing schemes, where efficiency is the primary consideration for various applications. How to design an efficient hierarchical secret sharing scheme is an important issue. In 2007, a famous hierarchical secret sharing (HSS) scheme was proposed by Tassa based on Birkhoff interpolation, and later, based on the same method, many other HSS schemes were proposed. However, these schemes all depend on Polya's condition, which is a necessary condition not a sufficient condition. It cannot guarantee that Tassa's HSS scheme always exists. Furthermore, this condition needs to check the non-singularity of many matrices. We propose a hierarchical multi-secret sharing scheme based on the linear homogeneous recurrence (LHR) relations and the one-way function. In our scheme, we select $m$ linearly independent homogeneous recurrence relations. The participants in the highly-ranked subsets $\gamma_1, \gamma_2 ,\cdots, \gamma_{j-1}$ join in the $j$-th subset to construct the $j$-th LHR relation. In addition, the proposed hierarchical multi-secret sharing scheme just requires one share for each participant, and keeps the same computational complexity. Compared with the state-of-the-art hierarchical secret sharing schemes, our scheme has high efficiency.
Payment Channel Networks (PCNs) have given a huge boost to the scalability of blockchain-based cryptocurrencies: Beyond improving the transaction rate, PCNs enabled cheap cross-currency payments and atomic swaps. However, current PCNs proposals either heavily rely on special scripting features of the underlying blockchain (e.g. Hash Time Lock Contracts) or are tailored to a handful of digital signature schemes, such as Schnorr or ECDSA signatures. This leaves us in an unsatisfactory situation where many currencies that are being actively developed and use different signature schemes cannot enjoy the benefits of a PCN. In this work, we investigate whether we can construct PCNs assuming the minimal ability of a blockchain to verify a digital signature, for any signature scheme. In answering this question in the affirmative, we introduce the notion of lockable signatures, which constitutes the cornerstone of our PCN protocols. Our approach is generic and the PCN protocol is compatible with any digital signature scheme, thus inheriting all favorable properties of the underlying scheme that are not offered by Schnorr/ECDSA (e.g.\ aggregatable signatures or post-quantum security). While the usage of generic cryptographic machinery makes our generic protocol impractical, we view it as an important feasibility result as it may serve as the basis for constructing optimized protocols for specific signature schemes. To substantiate this claim, we design a highly efficient PCN protocol for the special case of Boneh-Lynn-Shacham (BLS) signatures. BLS signatures enjoy many unique features that make it a viable candidate for a blockchain, e.g. short, unique, and aggregatable signatures. Yet, prior to our work, no PCN was known to be compatible with it (without requiring an advanced scripting language). The cost of our PCN is dominated by a handful of calls to the BLS algorithms. Our concrete evaluation of these basic operations shows that users with commodity hardware can process payments with minimal overhead.
Today, users' data is gathered and analyzed on a massive scale. While user data analytics such as personalized advertisement need to make use of this data, users may not wish to divulge their information without security and privacy guarantees. Private Stream Aggregation (PSA) allows the secure aggregation of time-series data, affording security and privacy to users' private data, which is much more efficient than general secure computation such as homomorphic encryption, multiparty computation, and secure hardware based approaches. Earlier PSA protocols face limitations including needless complexity or a lack of post-quantum security. In this work, we present SLAP, a lattice-based PSA protocol. SLAP features two variants with post-quantum security, with simpler and more efficient computations enabled by (1) the white- box approach that builds the encryption directly from the Ring Learning With Error assumption and (2) the state-of-the-art algorithmic optimization in lattice-based cryptography. We show that SLAP meets the security and privacy requirements of PSA, and show experimentally the improvements of SLAP over similar work. We show a speedup of 20.76x over the previous state-of-the-art lattice-based PSA work's aggregation, and apply techniques including RNS, NTT, and batching to obtain a throughput of over 600,000 aggregations per second.
Ransomware is a type of malware that blocks an user’s access to files and requests him/her a ransom. The main approach of an attacker is to encrypt the user’s files and give him/her the decrypting tool only after he/she pays the requested amount of money. The payment is usually done in difficult to trace currencies. In this paper, we provide a review of the ransomware phenomenon, making a clear distinction between the threats before and after WannaCry (which appeared in May 2017). Initially, we give two taxonomy examples from the literature and one designed by us. The first two taxonomies use ”Platform”, ”Cryptosystem”/”Crypto”, ”Severity”, ”Attack” and ”Target” as criteria (the terms appear in one of them or both), but we have chosen ”Target Zone”, ”Propagation”, ”Payment” and ”Weakness”. We further describe/compare ransomware programs, taking into account several aspects including how they work (e.g., encryption methods), whom they target (e.g., individuals/organizations), what impact they have and what weaknesses can be used to provide countermeasures (besides the general prevention techniques that we mention briefly).
Digital contact tracing apps allow to alert people who have been in contact with people who may be contagious. The Google/Apple Exposure Notification (GAEN) system is based on Bluetooth proximity estimation. It has been adopted by many countries around the world. However, many possible attacks are known. The goal of some of them is to inject a false alert on someone else's phone. This way, an adversary can eliminate a competitor in a sport event or a business in general. Political parties can also prevent people from voting. In this report, we review several methods to inject false alerts. One of them requires to corrupt the clock of the smartphone of the victim. For that, we build a time-traveling machine to be able to remotely set up the clock on a smartphone and experiment our attack. We show how easy this can be done. We successfully tested several smartphones with either the Swiss or the Italian app (SwissCovid or Immuni). We confirms is also works on other GAEN-based apps: NHS COVID-19 (in England and Wales), Corona-Warn-App (in Germany), and Coronalert (Belgium). Finally, we report a simpler attack which needs no time machine but relies on the existence of still-valid keys reported on the server. We observed the case in several countries. The attack is made trivial in Austria, Denmark, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Alabama, Delaware, Wyoming, Canada, and England & Whales. Other regions are affected by interoperability too.
In the pairing-based zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (zk-SNARK), there often exists a requirement for the proof system to be combined with encryption. As a typical example, a blockchain-based voting system requires the vote to be confidential (using encryption), while verifying voting validity (using zk-SNARKs). In these combined applications, a typical solution is to extend the zk-SNARK circuit to include the encryption code. However, complex cryptographic operations in the encryption algorithm increase the circuit size, which leads to impractically large proving time and CRS size. In this paper, we propose SNARK-friendly, Additively-homomorphic, and Verifiable Encryption and decryption with Rerandomization or SAVER, which is a novel approach to detach the encryption from the SNARK circuit. The encryption in SAVER holds many useful properties. It is SNARK-friendly: the encryption is conjoined with an existing pairing-based SNARK, in a way that the encryptor can prove pre-defined properties while encrypting the message apart from the SNARK. It is additively-homomorphic: the ciphertext holds a homomorphic property from the ElGamal-based encryption. It is a verifiable encryption: one can verify arbitrary properties of encrypted messages by connecting with the SNARK system. It provides a verifiable decryption: anyone without the secret can still verify that the decrypted message is indeed from the given ciphertext. It provides rerandomization: the proof and the ciphertext can be rerandomized as independent objects so that even the encryptor (or prover) herself cannot identify the origin. For the representative application, we also propose a Vote-SAVER based on SAVER, which is a novel voting system where voter's secret key lies only with the voter himself. The Vote-SAVER satisfies receipt-freeness (which implies ballot privacy), individual verifiability (which implies non-repudiation), vote verifiability, tally uniqueness, and voter anonymity. The experimental results show that our SAVER with respect to the Vote-SAVER relation yields 0.7s for zk-SNARK proving time and 10ms for encryption, with the CRS size of 16MB.
The CAP theorem says that no blockchain can be live under dynamic participation and safe under temporary network partitions. To resolve this availability-finality dilemma, we formulate a new class of flexible consensus protocols, ebb-and-flow protocols, which support a full dynamically available ledger in conjunction with a finalized prefix ledger. The finalized ledger falls behind the full ledger when the network partitions but catches up when the network heals. Gasper, the current candidate protocol for Ethereum 2.0's beacon chain, combines the finality gadget Casper FFG with the LMD GHOST fork choice rule and aims to achieve this property. However, we discovered an attack in the standard synchronous network model, highlighting a general difficulty with existing finality-gadget-based designs. We present a construction of provably secure ebb-and-flow protocols with optimal resilience. Nodes run an off-the-shelf dynamically available protocol, take snapshots of the growing available ledger, and input them into a separate off-the-shelf BFT protocol to finalize a prefix. We explore connections with flexible BFT and improve upon the state-of-the-art for that problem.
Since 2010 the Ring-LWE has been the hard computational problem for lattice cryptographic constructions. The fundamental problem is its hardness which has been based on the conjectured hardness of approximating ideal-SIVP or ideal-SVP. Though it is now widely conjectured both are hard in classical and quantum computation model there have no sufficient attacks proposed and considered. In this paper we propose sublattice attacks on Ring-LWE over an arbitrary number field from sublattice pairs. We give a sequence of number fields of degrees going to the infinity, such that the decision Ring-LWE with very wide error distributions over integer rings of can be solved by a polynomial time algorithm from our sublattice attack. The widths of error distributions in our attack is in the range of hardness reduction results. Hence we also prove that approximating ideal-SIVP with some polynomial factor for ideal lattices in these number fields can be solved by a polynomial time quantum algorithm.
Minimizing the computational cost of the prover is a central goal in the area of succinct arguments. In particular, it remains a challenging open problem to construct a succinct argument where the prover runs in linear time and the verifier runs in polylogarithmic time. We make progress towards this goal by presenting a new linear-time probabilistic proof. For any fixed $\epsilon > 0$, we construct an interactive oracle proof (IOP) that, when used for the satisfiability of an $N$-gate arithmetic circuit, has a prover that uses $O(N)$ field operations and a verifier that uses $O(N^{\epsilon})$ field operations. The sublinear verifier time is achieved in the holographic setting for every circuit (the verifier has oracle access to a linear-size encoding of the circuit that is computable in linear time). When combined with a linear-time collision-resistant hash function, our IOP immediately leads to an argument system where the prover performs $O(N)$ field operations and hash computations, and the verifier performs $O(N^{\epsilon})$ field operations and hash computations (given a short digest of the $N$-gate circuit).
We propose HERMES, a scalable, secure, and privacy-enhancing system, which allows users to share and access vehicles. HERMES outsources the vehicle access token generation to a set of untrusted servers, utilizing several cryptographic primitives with secure multi-party computation efficiently. It conceals the vehicle secret keys and transaction details from the servers such as vehicle booking details, access token information, and user-vehicle identities. It also provides user accountability in case of disputes. We prove that HERMES meets its security and privacy requirements. Moreover, we demonstrate that HERMES scales for a large number of users and vehicles, making it practical for real-world deployments. To achieve high-performance computations, we evaluate HERMES over two different multiparty computation protocols for Boolean and arithmetic circuits. We provide a detailed comparison of their performance, together with other state-of-the-art access provision protocols. Through a proof-of-concept implementation, our performance analysis demonstrates that HERMES requires only approx 61ms for a single-vehicle access provision. At the same time, it handles 546 and 84 access token generations per second from a single-vehicle owner and large branches of rental companies with over a thousand vehicles, respectively.
Zero-Knowledge Proof is a crucial tool for privacy preserving and stake proving. It allows the Prover to convince the Verifier about the validity of some statement without leaking any knowledge of his own. Quantities of zero knowledge protocols have been proposed by now and one of the state-of-the-art works is Halo [1], which is brought about by Bowe, Grigg and Hopwood. Even though nested amortization technique used in Halo, the Verifier still has to compute an O(n) operation ultimately. As a result, Halo is not a fully succinct zero-knowledge scheme and infeasible to be utilized in some scenarios such as Ethereum Smart Contract applications. We propose Halo 0.9, which is an enhanced version of Halo aiming at the issue above. Specifically, we introduce the SRS in [2] as the substitute for the random vector in the inner product and thus transform the Pedersen vector commitment to Kate polynomial commitment [2]. On the premise of original Halo protocol remained, the computation of Verifier is in logarithmic time.
This paper shows how to securely authenticate messages using just 29 bit operations per authenticated bit, plus a constant overhead per message. The authenticator is a standard type of "universal" hash function providing information-theoretic security; what is new is computing this type of hash function at very high speed. At a lower level, this paper shows how to multiply two elements of a field of size 2^128 using just 9062 \approx 71 * 128 bit operations, and how to multiply two elements of a field of size 2^256 using just 22164 \approx 87 * 256 bit operations. This performance relies on a new representation of field elements and new FFT-based multiplication techniques. This paper's constant-time software uses just 1.89 Core 2 cycles per byte to authenticate very long messages. On a Sandy Bridge it takes 1.43 cycles per byte, without using Intel's PCLMULQDQ polynomial-multiplication hardware. This is much faster than the speed records for constant-time implementations of GHASH without PCLMULQDQ (over 10 cycles/byte), even faster than Intel's best Sandy Bridge implementation of GHASH with PCLMULQDQ (1.79 cycles/byte), and almost as fast as state-of-the-art 128-bit prime-field MACs using Intel's integer-multiplication hardware (around 1 cycle/byte).
In 2017, Tang et al. have introduced a generic construction for bent functions of the form $f(x)=g(x)+h(x)$, where $g$ is a bent function satisfying some conditions and $h$ is a Boolean function. Recently, Zheng et al. generalized this result to construct large classes of bent vectorial Boolean function from known ones in the form $F(x)=G(x)+h(X)$, where $G$ is a bent vectorial and $h$ a Boolean function. In this paper we further generalize this construction to obtain vectorial bent functions of the form $F(x)=G(x)+\mathbf{H}(X)$, where $\mathbf{H}$ is also a vectorial Boolean function. This allows us to construct new infinite families of vectorial bent functions, EA-inequivalent to $G$, which was used in the construction. Most notably, specifying $\mathbf{H } (x)=\mathbf{h} (Tr_1^n(u_1x),\ldots,Tr_1^n(u_tx))$, the function $\mathbf{h} :\mathbb{F}_2^t \rightarrow \mathbb{F}_{2^t}$ can be chosen arbitrary which gives a relatively large class of different functions for a fixed function $G$. We also propose a method of constructing vectorial $(n,n)$-functions having maximal number of bent components.